Final Exam Complete Content

Final Exam Complete Content - Chapter 43 Monday, October...

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Chapter 43 Monday, October 17, 2011 1:23 PM Monocots vs. Dicots o Number of seed leaves Monocot seedlings each have 1 cotyledon use fibrous root system Dicot seedlings each have 2 cotyledon use taproot system Roots o Root hairs extensions of epidermal cells dramatically increase roots surface area for absorbing water and nutrients o Food storage is a function of all roots, but some are highly modified for storage o Aboveground roots give extra support o "Breathing" roots conduct oxygen to waterlogged roots o The roots of many orchids are photosynthetic Stems o Support branches, flowers (which become fruits), leaves, etc. o Determinate/Indeterminate plants Determinate grow to a certain size Indeterminate use different genes to continue growing o Stolons (runners) are horizontal, wandering, aboveground stem o Rhizomes horizontal belowground stems o Tubers (eg. Potatoes, yams) are the swollen ends of rhizomes, specialized for food storage o Bulbs are vertical, underground stems consisting mostly of the swollen bases of leaves specialized to store food o Thorns are rigid, sharp branches that deter potential herbivores (particularly mammalian browsers) Buds o Terminal bud exercise apical dominance over axillary buds Ea. The terminal (top) bud will grow before the lower buds. Trimming the terminal bud will cause the next buds down to activate and form branches. Leaves o Simple vs. Compound leaf Compound leaf has leaflets o petiole is the stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem o "solar panels" of plants o Some acrid-adapted plants have succulent leaves o Leaves specialized into spines to defend against herbivores Ex. Cactus o Leaves specialized to trap animals occur in carnivorous plants Ex. Venus fly trap o Leaf hairs help reduce water loss and provide some protection from herbivores Trichomes Growth types
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o Primary growth is lengthening of stems o Secondary growth is widening of stems o Undifferentiated meirstematic cells occur in buds o Cells in the center die and become wall of vascular system o Whole plant growth is indeterminate (unlimited) o Some organ growth is determinate (set size) Chapter 43 cont Monday, October 24, 2011 12:44 PM 3 tissue system o Dermal tissue -epidermis Skin of the plant Single cell layer Absorption in root system Water retention in shoot system, aided by waxy cuticle Roots have no waxy cuticle o Vascular tissue Xylem Transports water and dissolved minerals Cells are dead at functional maturity Phloem Transports sugars dissolved in water Cells are alive when they mature o Ground tissue All non-epidermal, non vascular tissue Three cell types Parenchyma Thin walled, living cells Perform most metabolic functions of the plant Photosynthesis (Parenchyma in leaves) Food storage (parenchyma in roots) Synthesis and secretion Collenchyma Cells with unevenly thickened walls that lack lignin
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course BIOL 1002 taught by Professor Pomarico during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Final Exam Complete Content - Chapter 43 Monday, October...

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