BIOL-Exam 2-Notes Bella

BIOL-Exam 2-Notes Bella - BIOL 1002 Exam 2 notes CHAPTER 19...

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BIOL 1002 Exam 2 notes CHAPTER 19 – non-living entities 1. Other Biological Structures a. Not organisms b. Viruses c. Viroids c.i. Even simpler and smaller than viruses c.ii. Do not have an envelope or protein capsid c.iii. Fragments of single-stranded RNA with NO protein coat c.iv. Hijack cells, infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees, potatoes, avocadoes. d. Model organisms – d.i. Can be used to figure out what the disease-causing entity is doing at the cellular level d.i.1. Yeast cells d.i.1.a. Cheap to grow, easy to do experiments with d.i.1.b. Used to figure out what causes- e. Mad Cow Disease – model organisms can be used to figure out what diseased cells are doing. Prions (non-living entity) cause the disease. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – what we call Mad Cow disease in humans. f. Prions – unusual infectious particles g. Protein particle with no genetic material (DNA or RNA) - This protein is like a drug that will inhibit 100,000 of proteins g.i.1. Protein structure: g.i.1.a. Amino acids g.i.1.b. Coil sheets g.i.1.c. Super coils g.i.2. Mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease g.i.3. Prions consist of a protein that is folded wrong and makes other proteins fold wrong. - Start to clump with your normal proteins and doesn’t allow them to do what they are supposed to do g.i.3.a. They developed as a byproduct of living organisms & can be genetically inherited – extremely rare 2. Family Tree of Life: a. Bacteria: prokaryotic b. Archaea: prokaryotic c. Eukarya: (animals, fungi, protisits, plants) c.i. Prokarya ate another prokarya and became an organelle like a chloroplast or mitochondria. c.ii. No life on the plant, then life-evolution of natural selection. c.iii. Branch point represents significant speciation event. 3. Prokaryotes: a. Bacteria and Archaea domains b. 1200 species described, may be 100-1000x that number c. 1 st organism to appear on Earth – 5 billion years ago c.i. A very few proportion of these cause human disease d. Bacteria d.i. Cell wall – semi-rigid, permeable, made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate with amino acids attached); gives bacteria shape d.ii. Shapes: d.ii.1. Bacilli – rod shaped d.ii.2. Cocci – spherically shaped d.ii.3. Spirilla – spiral-shaped d.iii. Capsules & slime layers d.iii.1. Capsules – highly organized, tightly attached to the cell wall d.iii.2. Slime layer – less organized, firmly attached to the cell wall
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d.iii.2.a. Both layers (1) hold bacteria in position and (2) keep the bacteria from loosing water when environment is dry d.iv. Pili – hair like structures on the surface of bacteria that aid in attachment – stick out from shell, anchor down to structure d.v. Rotating flagella – d.v.1. Positive taxis – moving toward d.v.2. Negative taxis – moving away d.v.3. Positive chemo taxis – moving toward chemical substance d.v.4. Negative chemo taxis – moving away from chemical substance that is too dangerous d.v.5. Positive photo taxis – moving toward light d.v.6. Negative photo taxis – moving away from light when it gets too much ( it can be bleached) d.vi. Endospore: d.vi.1.
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