Test 2 Study Guide

Test 2 Study Guide - Test 2 Study Guide Viroids o Simpler...

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Test 2 Study Guide Viroid’s o Simpler and smaller than viruses o It’s a Fragment of single stranded RNA with no protein coat o Hijack cells; infects primarily plant cells Including citrus trees, potatoes, and avocadoes Prions o Usually infections particles o Has no genome at all no RNA or DNA single/double stranded o Its protein particle with no genetic material (DNA/RNA) o Consist of a protein that is folded wrong and makes other protiens fold wrong o Protein Structure Amino Acids Coil Sheets Super Coils Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic o PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES No nucleus Multicellular One Big Chromosome Prokaryotes o Bacteria Cell wall Semi rigid, permeable, made of peptidoglycan (gives bacteria shapes) Shapes Bacilli - rod shaped Cocci – spherically shaped Spirilla – spiral shaped o Gram-Stain Dye the cells to distinguish the different types of cell walls Gram-positive Plasma membrane is surrounded by thick layer of Peptidoglycan Gram-negative Plasma membrane is surrounded by thin Peptidoglycan later Also has outer membrane o ***Human: only mitochondria have circular chromosomes o ***Plants in their chloroplasts have circular chromosomes 3 Domains of Life
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o Archaea o Bacteria o Eukarya Archaea vs. Bacteria o Similar to Bacteria in many ways Single celled Prokaryotes Small size o Differences- We know bc they’re in different domains Cell-membrane lipids structure Cell wall composition Archaea don’t have peptidoglycan in their cell walls Only the minority of bacteria can cause disease in humans In Archaea there are no known pathogens that cause human disease Archaea are not restricted to extreme habitats o ***Is there mitosis and meiosis in Bacteria/Archaea? *** NO BINARY FISSION o ***YEASTS unicellular fungus, eukaryote*** o ***Protist unicellular eukaryotes- single cells live their lives in the environment on their own *** o ***REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURE=FRUITING BODY*** Fungi o Eukaryotic, multicellular fungi o Structure: Mycelium The feeding network of a fungus The BODY of the fungus, can be VERY large Usually underground or inside a decaying of living organism and maybe in a symbiotic relationship (both organisms are affected) It is an interwoven mass of hyphae Hyphae Composed of a woven mesh of hyphae Threadlike filaments of a fungus consisting of cells forming very long tubes of cells Cell Walls Tubular wall containing chitin o Consists of glucose and nitrogen o Chitin- polysaccharide of modified (bc linked to functional nitrogen containing groups) sugars o Surrounds the plasma membrane and cytoplasm
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Cytoplasm inside cell Septa Structures which partially separate the cytoplasm inside the hyphae Found in many fungi, if they don’t have this they are aseptic Allows for the controlled movement of things (nutrients) throughout the fungi from one cell to the next
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Test 2 Study Guide - Test 2 Study Guide Viroids o Simpler...

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