midterm 1 part 3

midterm 1 part 3 - B. He strongly disputed the claim that...

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B. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment of sin could be purchased with money. taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin challenged the authority of the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge also said since forgiveness was God's alone to grant, those who claimed that indulgences absolved buyers from all punishments and granted them salvation were in error. Christians, he said, must not slacken in following Christ on account of such false assurances. Luther's translation used the variant of German spoken at the Saxon chancellery, intelligible to both northern and southern Germans. intended his vigorous, direct language to make the Bible accessible to everyday Germans in 1515 : Popes much wealthier and more powerful than most secular rulers D. . Agricultural Revolution and enclosure a. enclosure: rationalizes ag system b. labor displacement: consequence of enclosure; no longer make their village work or pasture animals or hunt because property is not lord’s personal property c. surplus labor d. increased population over all e. decline of rural aristocratic society begins—through this is slow, especially in southern eastern Europe 2. Commercial Revolution a. mercantile trade in textiles b. navigation acts, and colonial production of raw materials c. rising demand for cheap fabrics, esp cotton, 1770-1850 d. rising demand for luxury goods, sugar, coffee, tea, cocoa, etc Creation of new colonial outposts (pushed by mercantile ideas) Increased trade in exotic goods (cocoa, coffee, tobacco, tea, sugar)
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New financial instruments (banks, stock markets) Development of ‘capitalism’ o Use and accumulation of excess money in order to create new foundations of wealth Industrious revolution o New small-scale industries 3. Military Revolution a. demand for interchangeable weaponry increases b. overall demand for military supplies increases during Napoleonic Wars c. Need for grade-scale production of arms, uniforms, shells, etc
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course HIST 1003 taught by Professor Zucker during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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midterm 1 part 3 - B. He strongly disputed the claim that...

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