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Unformatted text preview: Atomic Terms,Hund’s Rules, Atomic Spectroscopy 5th May 2009 I. Atomic Terms, Hund’s Rules, Atomic Spectroscopy Having defined ways to determine atomic terms (which group various quan- tum microstates of similar energy) we need to specify a protocol to allow us to determine qualitatively the relative energetics of the terms. Up till now, apart from the example of the carbon atom ground state, we have not considered too deeply the idea of spin-orbit coupling. This is important for nuclei starting with Z=30 and moving to higher charge. For these atoms, the various terms arising from L-S (Russel-Saunders) coupling of orbital and spin angular momenta are further split based on the spin multiplicity, effectively. Hund’s Rules: • The lowest energy term is that which has the greatest spin mul- tiplicity . • For terms that have the same spin multiplicity, the term with the highest orbital angular momentum lies lowest in energy....
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