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# Lab10 - LABORATORY 10 Thevenin Equivalent Circuits and...

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LABORATORY 10 Thevenin Equivalent Circuits and Nonideal Sources Lab Goals 1. Gain practical experience of working with simple resistive circuits 2. Construct and characterize a 4-bit D/A converter 3. Characterize non-ideal voltage sources at various frequencies 4. Measure the phase of AC signals

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Input impedance is the equivalent impedance with respect to the input terminals of a passive circuit. Passive circuit + _ V I Z = V I in A passive circuit has no sources.
A simple example: find Z in Z in Z 1 Z 3 Z 2 Z 5 Z 4 Z in = Z 1 + Z 5 + (Z 3 +Z 4 ) Z 2 Z 2 +Z 3 +Z 4

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Resistive ladder circuit is easy to analyze Z in R o Fig. 10.10 Infinite R 0 - 2R 0 ladder R o R o R o 2 R o 2 R o 2 R o How well can we predict what really happens in the lab? Resistor values may vary from the nominal value Contact resistances may be important Measuring instruments need to be calibrated
Why do we need D/A and A/D converters? A/D – converts electrical signals from sensors to digital form for signal processing D/A output from digital signal processors is used to control electro-mechanical actuators We want our digital electronic systems (computers) to interact with real world

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How does the 3-stage D/A converter work?
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