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Unformatted text preview: Immunology Exam 1 Chapter 1 Innate immunity- molecular and cellular mechanisms pre-deployed before an infection and poised to prevent or eliminate it; makes use of pattern recognition Adaptive immunity- develops in response to infection and adapts to recognize, eliminate, and then remember the invading pathogen I. Historical Perspective A. Discovery of immunity- 430 BC Thucydides, those who had the plague could nurse the ill B. First attempt to induce immunity- 5 th century, Chinese and Turks, smallpox C. Edward Jenner, 1798- discovered the immunity to smallpox that cowpox gives milkmaids, began inoculation technique D. Louis Pasteur- proved that aging a pathogen would attenuate, weaken, it so it could then be administered to create an immunity, the first vaccine Serum- the liquid, noncellular component recovered from coagulated blood; carries the immunity, through immunoglobulins Active immunity- engendered by a vaccine Passive immunity- transfer of antibody with a given specificity Lymphocyte- cell indentified as responsible for both cellular and humoral immunity, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes Theories of antibody specificity: A. The Selective Theory- cells in the blood expressed a variety of receptors that could react with infectious agents and inactivate them B. Instructional Theories- a particular antigen would serve as a template around which antibody would fold C. Clonal-selection Theory- an individual lymphocyte expresses membrane receptors that are specific for a distinct antigen; binding of antigen to receptor activates the cell, causing it to proliferate into many clones; this is the underlying paradigm of modern immunology Pathogen- organism that causes disease Opportunistic infections- caused by ubiquitous microorganisms in cases of immune deficiency Interferon- a group of proteins produced by virus-infected cells, induce an antiviral state, type of cytokine Collectins- proteins that kill bacteria by disrupting their lipid membranes Cytokines- soluble proteins that aid in cell signaling-Chemokines- recruit specific cells to the site of the cell secreting the cytokine Adaptive immunity displays- antigenic specificity-diversity-immunologic memory-self-nonself recognition II T cells- A. T helper cells- display CD4 glycoprotein B. T cytotoxic cells- display CD8 gylcoprotein C. T regulatory cells- displays CD4 and CD25, suppress immune responses-T cell receptors can recognize only antigen that is bound to cell membrane proteins celled major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules-Class I- expressed by all cells-Class II- expressed by antigen-presenting cells-T helper cells recognize antigen-MHC class II complexes, secretes cytokines that activate B cells, T cytotoxic cells and macrophages III. Immune dysfunction A. Autoimmunity- the immune system loses its sense of self and nonself, permitting an attack on the host B. Immunodeficiency- if any components of the innate or specific immunity are defective by a genetic abnormality, or if any immune function is lost by a toxic...
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course BIOLOGY 311 taught by Professor Johnpalisano during the Fall '09 term at Sewanee.
- Fall '09
- The Maids