Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 All about Carbohydrates Take the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 All about Carbohydrates Take the challenge: Explain these statements Carbohydrates can be stored in the body Eating too much simple carbohydrates could cause of diabetes in the long run Eating a banana w/ a cup of milk can help you sleep better Carbohydrates: A Diverse Class of Nutrients Types Simple sugars (less than 10 sugar units) Monosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides Glucose, Galactose, Fructose (GGF) Disaccharides Monosaccharide + Monosaccharide= disaccharide Sucrose Lactose Maltose Complex Carbohydrates Poly saccharides many monosaccharide molecules Dietary Fiber long chain of monosaccharides that cannot be digested Starch Digestible storage form of carbohydrates found in plants Glycogen storage form of carbohydrates found in muscle and liver Dietary fiber vs starch Starch Fiber Indigestible Digestible Function of carbohydrates Functions of Carbohydrates Energy Spare protein Regulate blood sugar Flavor/sweeten food Source of fiber (when ingested as complex) How much do we need/day? On average: 4565% of total calories More if athlete 35 g/kg sedentary light activity 810 g/kg regular long-duration, intense endurance activity Regulation of blood sugar Major organs that regulate blood glucose Liver releases glucose into the bloodstream (from stored glycogen) when blood sugar drops Pancreas releases 2 different hormones Insulin Glucagon High Blood sugar Low blood sugar Insulin signals opening of glucose channels Function of Insulin Increases glucose uptake by cells =>Lowers blood sugar Increases storage of glucose Mainly in liver and muscles Increases fat synthesis Glucagon Released in response to blood sugar drop Stimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver (what about muscle glycogen?) Regulates release of glucose into blood Increases blood sugar 3.18 Regulating Blood Glucose Glucagon action Insulin action Other hormones that regulate glucose (Stress response) Cortisol (stress hormone) Decreases use of glucose Insulin resistance (interferes w/ insulin) Protein breakdown...
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course HWS 332 taught by Professor Bagdash during the Fall '11 term at Binghamton University.

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 All about Carbohydrates Take the...

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