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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 All about Carbohydrates Take the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 All about Carbohydrates Take the challenge: Explain these statements • Carbohydrates can be stored in the body • Eating too much simple carbohydrates could cause of diabetes in the long run • Eating a banana w/ a cup of milk can help you sleep better Carbohydrates: A Diverse Class of Nutrients • Types – Simple sugars (less than 10 sugar units) • Monosaccharides • Disaccharides Monosaccharides Glucose, Galactose, Fructose (GGF) Disaccharides Monosaccharide + Monosaccharide= disaccharide Sucrose Lactose Maltose Complex Carbohydrates • Poly saccharides – many monosaccharide molecules – Dietary Fiber –long chain of monosaccharides that cannot be digested – Starch – Digestible storage form of carbohydrates found in plants – Glycogen – storage form of carbohydrates found in muscle and liver Dietary fiber vs starch Starch Fiber Indigestible Digestible Function of carbohydrates Functions of Carbohydrates • Energy • Spare protein • Regulate blood sugar • Flavor/sweeten food • Source of fiber (when ingested as complex) How much do we need/day? • On average: – 45–65% of total calories • More if athlete – 3–5 g/kg sedentary – light activity – 8–10 g/kg regular – long-duration, intense endurance activity Regulation of blood sugar Major organs that regulate blood glucose • Liver – releases glucose into the bloodstream (from stored glycogen) when blood sugar drops • Pancreas – releases 2 different hormones – Insulin – Glucagon High Blood sugar Low blood sugar Insulin signals opening of glucose channels Function of Insulin • Increases glucose uptake by cells =>Lowers blood sugar • Increases storage of glucose – Mainly in liver and muscles • Increases fat synthesis Glucagon • Released in response to blood sugar drop • Stimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver (what about muscle glycogen?) • Regulates release of glucose into blood – Increases blood sugar 3.18 Regulating Blood Glucose Glucagon action Insulin action Other hormones that regulate glucose (Stress response) • Cortisol (stress hormone) – Decreases use of glucose • Insulin resistance (interferes w/ insulin) – Protein breakdown –...
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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 All about Carbohydrates Take the...

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