09-1 - Chapter 9 Chapter Group Processes: Group Influence...

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Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Group Processes: Group Processes: Influence in Social Groups Influence in Social Groups
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Definitions: What is a Group? Definitions: What is a Group? Three or more people who interact and are interdependent Benefits: Facilitate goal achievement Provide information - social comparison & ambiguity resolution Identity Establishing social norms and rules.
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Definitions: What is a Group? Definitions: What is a Group? The Composition of Groups Members tend to be similar because people are attracted to similar others and because groups operate in ways that encourage similarity among members. Influential aspects of groups Norms Roles Group cohesiveness
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Social facilitation Triplett’s observations – greater performance when others present However…. .on some tasks, performance is worse when others present…. Zajonc: Performance enhanced on simple, well-learned tasks, impaired on complex, poorly-learned ones (Example: Michaels et al. skilled vs. unskilled pool shooters) Social Influence in Groups Social Influence in Groups
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Skilled vs. Unskilled Pool Shooters - Social Facilitation (Michaels et al., 1982) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of shots made No audience Audience present Unskilled players Skilled players
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SOCIAL FACILITATION IN COCKROACHES SOCIAL FACILITATION IN COCKROACHES
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The Principle of The Principle of Social Facilitation Social Facilitation Zajonc: Arousal facilitates the dominant response Why? Evaluation apprehension Attentional diversion Mere presence - physiological arousal
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Social Loafing Social Loafing Groups outperform individuals: The whole is greater than the sum of its parts – True or False? FALSE….but only when output is monitored collectively A deficit in coordination or diminished individual effort?
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09-1 - Chapter 9 Chapter Group Processes: Group Influence...

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