05D - The Self: Structure & Content The Self:...

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Unformatted text preview: The Self: Structure & Content The Self: Structure & Content s s s James’ I (experiential consciousness) and Me (self­concept) Looking­glass self: Reflected appraisals Cultural differences in self­concept: “Me thinking” vs. “We thinking”: Figure 12.18 Culture and conceptions of self. According to Markus and Kitayama (1991), Western cultures foster an independent view of the self as a unique individual who is separate from others, as diagrammed on the left. In contrast, Asian cultures encourage an interdependent view of the self as part of an interconnected social matrix, as diagrammed on the right. The interdependent view leads people to define themselves in terms of their social relationships (for instance, as someone’s daughter, employee, colleague, or neighbor). 9 of 15 Beliefs About the Self Beliefs About the Self s Self­Esteem: A global evaluation (affective judgment) about one’s value and competency. Sample Items from Rosenberg’s Sample Items from Rosenberg’s Self­Esteem Scale s s s s s I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal basis with others. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. I am able to do things as well as most other people On the whole, I am satisfied with myself At times I think I am no good at all (RS) Beliefs About the Self Beliefs About the Self Self­Esteem s Rotter’s Locus of Control s Bandura’s Self­Efficacy s Sample Items from a Self­Efficacy Sample Items from a Self­Efficacy Scale s s s s s When I make plans, I am certain that I can make them work. When I decide to do something, I go right to work at it. I am a self­reliant person If I see someone I would like to meet, I go to that person instead of waiting for him or her to come to me. I do not seem capable of dealing with problems that come up in life (RS) Beliefs About the Self Beliefs About the Self Self­Esteem s Rotter’s Locus of Control s Bandura’s Self­Efficacy s The “Better than average” effect s “Everybody Loves Me: Metaperceptions of Dating Popularity” (Preuss & Alicke, 2009) Subjects predicted how their own video profiles would be ranked by others in comparison to 6 other video profiles % giving t his r ank 30 Subject prediction 25 Actual observer ranking 20 15 10 5 0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 Ranking #6 #7 Other Self­Enhancing Biases Other Self­Enhancing Biases s s s s False Consensus ­ Overestimating the commonality of one’s opinions or undesirable behaviors/failures False Uniqueness ­ Underestimating the commonality of one’s abilities or desirable behaviors/successes Unrealistic Optimism: Weinstein’s RU students If it’s flattering, it must be true: The Barnum effect Self­Knowledge Self­Knowledge s s s How good are we at remembering our own attitudes, emotions, and behavior? “ Vanity plays lurid tricks with our memory” (J. Conrad “It is necessary to remember that events happened in the desired manner” (G. Orwell) Remembering our own attitudes Remembering our own attitudes Attitudes: Remembering ‘73 in ‘82 (Markus, 1986) Recalled Act ual 1973 Act ual 1982 Legalize Pot W omen's Right s Affirmative Action Remembering our own emotions: Remembering our own emotions: Menstruation, Recalled Mood, and Actual Mood (McFarland et al., 1989) 3 2.5 2 Negativity of Mood 1.5 1 0.5 Recalled mood 0 Premenstrual Menstrual Intermenstrual Actual mood Self­Knowledge Self­Knowledge s How good are we at explaining our own preferences, our own behavior, its causes and consequences? – Nisbett & Wilson’s power saw + documentary study – Nisbett & Wilson’s “Telling More than We Can Know” review – The multiple­choice dilemma ­ change your answer or stick with your first choice? Based on your past experience, which should you Based on your past experience, which should you do ­ stick with the first choice or change your answer? Here’s what students (and most professors) believe occurs when they change their answer. 11% 15% 55% 19% Hurts score Don't know I mproves score No change Based on empirical data, here’s what Based on empirical data, here’s what actually happens when people change their answers! (Benjamin, Cavell, & Schallenberger, 1984) 20% 58% 22% Right to wrong Wrong to wrong Wrong to right How we come to know ourselves How we come to know ourselves s Self­Perception Theory – We infer our attitudes and feelings by observing our own behavior (and its context) – Facial and Kinesthetic feedback studies on the evaluation of stimuli and emotional state – Explaining the overjustification effect (inferring extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation) Self­Perception Theory Self­Perception Theory s Facial feedback research Positive Mood, Favorable Evaluation of Neutral stimuli Negative Mood, Unfavorable Evaluation of neutral stimuli Self­Perception Theory Self­Perception Theory Head­nodding s Pulling toward ­ pushing away s The “overjustification effect” s – If given a reward for doing something they enjoy doing, people will do it less (or less well) after the reward is ceased than if never given a reward at all! Overjustification Effect Overjustification Effect (Greene, Sternberg, & Lepper, 1976) Frequency of act ivit y 30 Reward Condition 25 No Reward Condition 20 15 10 5 0 Baseline Reward Program Reward Discontinued Why? Rewards lead us to infer extrinsic motivation, rather than intrinsic motivation, for our behavior Social Comparison Social Comparison Others are a “standard” against which we evaluate ourselves s We use similar others, most often from reference groups s Upward comparisons s Downward comparisons s In ambiguous situations, other people’s behavior is a useful source of information s Inferring Emotion ­ Self­Perception, Inferring Emotion ­ Self­Perception, Attributional, and Social Comparison Processes s The 2­factor theory of emotion – First, experience physiological arousal, then…. – Interpret arousal (i.e., make an attribution for it) – “Suproxin” study (Schachter & Singer, 1962) s s s Ss rec’d placebo or epinephrine Ss informed or not informed of effect Ss paired with hostile or euphoric confederate Suproxin study: 2­Factor Theory of Emotion Suproxin study: 2­Factor Theory of Emotion Aroused Informed No Anger Aroused Not Informed Angry Informed No euphoria Not Informed Euphoric Misattribution of Arousal: Dutton Misattribution of Arousal: Dutton & Aron, 1974 s Half the men crossed a low, secure bridge s Half the men crossed a high, wobbly bridge Emotion & Misattribution ­ Fear or Sexual Emotion & Misattribution ­ Fear or Sexual Attraction? (Dutton & Aron,1974) 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 % who callled woman Crossed low secure bridge Crossed high wobbly bridge Self­Presentational Phenomena: Self­Presentational Phenomena: Impression Management s Spotlight effect: Overestimating the extent to which our actions/appearance are noticed by and affect others s Illusion of Transparency: Overestimating others’ accuracy in reading our thoughts and feelings s Self­handicapping: Creating an excuse for possible future failure s False modesty False Modesty: Expression of gratitude False Modesty: Expression of gratitude for success (Baumeister & Ilko, 1995) Level of expressed gratitude to others for success Publicly Anonymously The Big Picture: How biased are we The Big Picture: How biased are we toward the self and is it adaptive or not? s s s s Biases exert themselves when information is ambiguous or lacking, or judgments are subjective Motives are multiple: Accuracy, homeostasis (self­ verification), self­enhancement The self is social, defined in part by and subject to the influence of others, as individuals and as groups. A little self­serving deception may be adaptive – Benefits of unrealistic optimism – The phenomenon of depressive realism When Self­Serving Biases Become a When Self­Serving Biases Become a Problem s s s 90% of managers believe themselves to be better than their peers In marriages, women say they do 70% of the housework; Men say they do 45% When groups succeed, members take a disproportionate share of credit; when they fail, members take less than proportionate share of blame. When Self­Serving Biases Become a When Self­Serving Biases Become a Problem ­ High SE and the problem of “Threatened Egotism” s s s Low SE is associated with anti­social, especially aggressive, behavior….or is it? Violent criminals, bullies, and perpetrators of genocide have high self­appraisals and believe themselves superior to others Inflated SE may lead to threatened egotism, with the result being a sense of offense, disrespect, or injustice. High SE and the problem of High SE and the problem of “Threatened Egotism” And your appraisal of me is ………….here If my appraisal of myself is here…………. All’s Well HOWEVER…. If my appraisal of myself is here…………. And your appraisal of me is ………….here Potential for major conflict ...
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