01C-1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Psychology Social...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Psychology Social What is Social Psychology? What Scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by the real or actions imagined presence of other people. imagined Main Themes of Social Psyc Power of the situation Social reality is Social subjective/constructive, thus subject to bias and error to Social behavior is largely automatic Social psychology is a scientific Social discipline discipline Why Science and not personal experience and common sense? experience Common sense gives us conflicting Common predictions - “dueling proverbs”: predictions Does “absence make the heart grow fonder” Are “two of a feather than together” Do “birdsheads better flock one” or or is o“opposites attract”? do“out of sight,cooks spoil the broth”? d “too many out of mind”? I Does Social Psychology only Does confirm what we already know? confirm “Decades of research by social psychologists Decades have revealed that couples who live together before they marry are less likely to divorce than those who do not cohabitate before marriage” … those so the advice “test drive before you buy” is true. “Decades of research by social psychologists Decades have revealed that, whether choosing friends or falling in love, we are most attracted to people whose traits are most like our own….so the aphorism “birds of a feather flock together” is true. true. The Problem of Hindsight Bias: The “I knew it all along” phenomenon Outcomes seem obvious and easy to predict in Outcomes retrospect retrospect Makes findings of social psychology seem trite Makes and banal and When judging the decisions of others, hindsight When bias affects our evaluations of them bias Examples: Columbia space-shuttle disaster U.S. Intelligence and 9/11 terrorist attack Simple Common Sense: Simple Personality predicts behavior Social psychologists study the power of Social the situation to influence behavior the Example: Ross & Samuels (1993) Participants identified as competitive or Participants cooperative by dorm RAs cooperative Participants played game labeled as either Participants “Wall Street” or “Community” “Wall What would determine how people played What the game - their personality or the game’s name? name? Which is more important in determining behavior: Personality or Social Norms? (Ross & Samuels, 1993) (Ross % of Ss Choosing Cooperative Strategy 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Cooperative Personalities Competitive Personalities Community Game Wall Street Game A 2nd Bias: 2nd Correspondence Bias & the Correspondence Fundamental Attribution Error Fundamental We tend to overestimate the power of We personality (internal factors) and underestimate the power of the situation (external factors) in determining the behavior of others (correspondence bias), behavior ), resulting in erroneous internal attributions (FAE). The Importance of Construals Construals How people interpret, understand, and represent How social situations determine their affect, cognition, and behavior. and Construals are subjective and vary among Construals individuals - social perception is a constructive process process Construals are influenced by 4 primary motives: • • • • to be accurate to feel good about ourselves to achieve acceptance and approval of others to reduce uncertainty The Importance of Construals Construals Construals Expectations Confirmation: The Construals Case of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (SFP) Case Classic studies on SFP: Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968) Rosenthal “Bloomers” vs. “Non-Bloomers” • Students identified as IQ bloomers to teachers • Bloomers exhibited a 4 pt higher increase in IQ than Bloomers Non-Bloomers Non-Bloomers • Students not identified as bloomers but who showed IQ Students gains were less liked by teachers! gains The Importance of Construals Classic studies on SFP (cont’d): Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) Snyder, “What you (think you) see, is what you get” • Men were given pictures of attractive or unattractive Men women and telephoned them women The Importance of Construals Classic studies on SFP (cont’d): Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) “What you (think you) see, is what you get” • Men who were given an attractive picture found their Men partners more warm, likeable, interesting, confident partners • When other people listened to a recording of only the When women’s portion of the conversations, they also rated them women’s as warmer, more likeable, etc. as SFP in a male-female interaction SFP (Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid, 1977) 10 Attractive Photo Unattractive Photo 8 6 4 2 0 Warmth Likeability Confidence Science vs. Common Sense Science vs Common Objective, rigorous data collection Subjective, biased data collection Conclusions based on analysis of data Impressionistic conclusions Error can be corrected No corrective features - error persists Foundations of the Scientific Method: Theory, Hypothesis, and Measurement Measurement Theory: Theory: A coherent set of related principles that explains observed phenomena phenomena Hypothesis: A specific, falsifiable Hypothesis: falsifiable prediction derived from theory prediction Measurement • Conceptual and Operational definitions Operational of variables of • Issues of reliability and validity Issues reliability validity Determining Cause & Effect: Determining The Experimental Approach Independent Variable Dependent Variable •Random assignment + Control of extraneous variables = Internal Validity Internal •Representative sample + Psychological realism = External Validity External The Experimental Approach - An Example: Rosenthal & Jacobsen Example: Teacher Expectancy Change in IQ Score •“Bloomer” label assigned randomly + students /parents unaware of label = High Internal Validity Internal •Sample of varied ethnicity, ability etc. + Real classroom, real IQ tests = High External Validity External Did Rosenthal & Jacobsen Did prove SFP to be true? • • • • Could this outcome be due to chance Could variation and not the effect of the IV? What is the likelihood that this outcome is What due to chance? due If it’s < 5% (i.e., p < .05), we decide that the If result is statistically significant statistically What factors affect significance? • • • Sample size Magnitude of effect Variability in data We NEVER prove anything in We psychological research because We study samples, not populations We We draw inferences about populations We using data obtained from samples using Therefore, any result can be due to chance Therefore, alone alone It’s always a question of probability, never It’s of certainty of Statistical vs. Practical Significance Practical We have Statistical Significance when We Statistical outcome is probably not due to chance outcome We have Practical Significance when We Practical outcome is large enough to make some meaningful difference in real life. meaningful Non-Experimental Research Non-Experimental (Correlational) This type of research can tell us if X and Y covary; i.e. if X and Y are mathematically related. covary; What does the correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r) tell us? (Pearson’s Non-Experimental (Correlational) Research (Correlational) Advantages No manipulation or control of variables required You can use “in vivo” data Limitations: Cannot control or manipulate variables No causal conclusions can be drawn Directionality problem 3rd variable problem Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The Directionality Problem If self-esteem and academic If achievement are related, then: achievement Possibility 1: High achievement might cause increased self-esteem Higher Grades Higher SE Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The Directionality Problem If self-esteem and academic If achievement are related, then : achievement Possibility 2: High self-esteem might cause better grades Higher SE Higher Grades Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The Directionality Problem If self-esteem and academic If achievement are related, then : achievement Possibility 3: A reciprocal relationship may exist between both variables Higher SE Higher Grades Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The 3rd Variable Problem Third Variables: Rather than higher SE causing better grades or better grades boosting SE, a third variable (warm, stable parenting, or high SES) may cause both. ? Self-Esteem Academic Achievement Ethical Issues In Research Ethical Welfare and Rights of subjects must be of Welfare primary concern primary Informed consent is required Deception and Concealment must be Deception justified and debriefing is necessary debriefing Institutional Review Boards must approve design and methods design How will our findings be used and How reported by others? reported ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course 830 321 taught by Professor K.brynildsen during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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