GY 111 Lab Notes D. Haywick (2007-08) 1GY 111 Lecture Note Series Elemental Chemistry Lecture Goals: A)Basic Atomic structure (Chemistry 101) B)The Periodic Table Reference: Press et al. (2004), Chapter 3; Grotzinger et al (2007), Chapter 3 A) Basic atomic structure (with apologies to my Chemistry colleagues) A bit of history is required before we start into the chemistry stuff. During the good old days (i.e., 100's of years ago), "chemists" were essentially magicians. They had learned some basic data about the planet around them, including basic elements. At the time, most people thought that their universe consisted of 4 basic elements: 1) Fire 2) water 3) earth 4) air Of course some earth was better than others. Gold came from the Earth, and was highly sought after. Some chemists tried to figure out ways to convert earth into gold. They were the alchemists. They never really figured out how to do this (it is possible, but you need a nuclear reactor to do it). After a while, chemists settled down and actually started to try and figure out the materials that made up the universe. They asked a simple question what are the basic building blocks of matter?Consider the mineral halite (NaCl; pictured above from http://www.geoclassics.com/halite.jpg). This mineral has a cubic crystal habit. It also has 3 excellent cleavages (all at 90-degrees to one another), meaning that if you hit halite with a hammer, it will always break into smaller and smaller cubes of halite:
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