111-4 - GY 111 Lab Notes D. Haywick (2007-08) 1 GY 111...

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GY 111 Lab Notes D. Haywick (2007-08) 1 GY 111 Lecture Note Series Elemental Chemistry Lecture Goals: A) Basic Atomic structure (Chemistry 101) B) The Periodic Table Reference: Press et al. (2004), Chapter 3; Grotzinger et al (2007), Chapter 3 A) Basic atomic structure (with apologies to my Chemistry colleagues) A bit of history is required before we start into the chemistry stuff. During the good old days (i.e., 100's of years ago), "chemists" were essentially magicians. They had learned some basic data about the planet around them, including basic elements. At the time, most people thought that their universe consisted of 4 basic elements: 1) Fire 2) water 3) earth 4) air Of course some earth was better than others. Gold came from the Earth, and was highly sought after. Some chemists tried to figure out ways to convert earth into gold. They were the alchemists . They never really figured out how to do this (it is possible, but you need a nuclear reactor to do it). After a while, chemists settled down and actually started to try and figure out the materials that made up the universe. They asked a simple question what are the basic building blocks of matter? Consider the mineral halite (NaCl; pictured above from http://www.geoclassics.com/halite.jpg) . This mineral has a cubic crystal habit. It also has 3 excellent cleavages (all at 90-degrees to one another), meaning that if you hit halite with a hammer, it will always break into smaller and smaller cubes of halite:
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GY 111 Lab Notes D. Haywick (2007-08) 2 But eventually you come down to a single molecule - one sodium particle (Na) attached to one chlorine particle (Cl). Up until this century, chemists felt that these particles ( atoms or ions ) were the basic building blocks of all matter. Atoms were defined as the smallest division of matter that retains characteristics of a particular "thing". Ions were atoms that possessed positive or negative charges (we'll get into these shortly) Those particular things were called atoms . At last count, there were just over 100 elements (although several of them were produced in labs rather than found in nature). Each has a specific chemical symbol. The elements can combine through various chemical reactions to for compounds . For example: water is H 2 O (one part hydrogen + 2 parts oxygen) galena is PbS (one part lead - Latin is plumbum , + 1 part sulfur) chalcopyrite is CuFeS 2 (one part copper + 1 part iron + 2 parts sulfur) Many of the man-made elements and even some of the naturally occurring ones are unstable. They tend to break apart over time through a process called
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course GLY 111 taught by Professor Haywick during the Fall '11 term at S. Alabama.

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111-4 - GY 111 Lab Notes D. Haywick (2007-08) 1 GY 111...

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