book review ch2 & 6

book review ch2 & 6 - Chapter 2: Cross Cultural...

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Chapter 2: Cross Cultural Variations Culture ଐဋ conccept of culture Culture is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society. Norms- the boundaries that culture sets on behavior are called norms, which are simply values that specify or prohibit certain behaviors in specific situations. Sanctions- violation of cultural norms results in sanctions, or penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banish associated sanction, which in turn influence consumption pattern . Cultural values (self- oriented, environmental, other oriented) Other-oriented values- reflect a society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society . Individual/collective Youth/age Extended/limited family Masculine/feminine Competitive/cooperate Diversity/uniformity Environment- oriented values-prescribe a society’s relationship to its economic and technical as well as its physical environment. Cleanliness Performance/status (Power distance)-which refers to the degree to which people accept inequality in power, authority, status, and wealth as natural or inherent in society. Tradition/changer Risk taking/security Problem solving/fatalistic nature Self-oriented values-reflects the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable. Active/passive Sensual gratification/abstinence Material/nonmaterial (Instrumental vs. terminal materialism)- Instrumental materialism is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something. Terminal materialism is the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself. Hard work/leisure Postponed gratification/immediate gratification Religious/secular Verbal vs. Non-verbal communication systems Verbal communication-language
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Non-verbal communication- Are the arbitrary meanings a culture assigns actions, events, and things other than words. ex. communication factors as humor and preferred style and pace vary across cultures . Monochronic vs. polychromic time perspective Monochromic time- time is seen almost as a physical object, we can schedule it, waste it , lose it and so forth . Polychromic time- time as being less discrete and less subject to scheduling. Personal space- it is the nearest that others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable Guanxi Chinese relationships are complex and are described under the concept of guanxi, more than getting to know someone Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Marketers increasingly use purchasing power parity rather than average or median income to evaluate markets. PPP is based on the cost in us dollars of a standard market basket of products bough in each country . Chapter 6: Families & Households
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book review ch2 & 6 - Chapter 2: Cross Cultural...

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