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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 1. Accessibility the likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM is termed accessibility. 2. Analytical reasoning: 3. Brand equity: value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product. 4. Brand image refers to the schematic memory of a brand. 5. Brand leverage (family branding, brand extensions, umbrella branding) refers to marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products. 6. Classical vs. operant conditioning Classical conditioning: process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand). Operant conditioning (or instrumental learning) involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior 7. Cognitive learning (encompasses all the mental activities of human as they work to solve problems or cope with situations) 1. Iconic Rote Learning 2. Vicarious Learning/Modeling 3. Analytical Reasoning (creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts) 8. High involvement learning situation is one in which the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material. 9.Iconic rote learning :learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning is known as ... 10. Implicit memory: a sense of familiarity, a feeling, or a set of beliefs about an item without conscious awareness of when and how they were acquired. 11. Maintenance rehearsal: is the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long- term memory (elaborative activities-redefine or add new elements to memory) 12. Short term vs. long term memory 1. Short-term Memory (STM) a.k.a. working memory portion of total memory currently activated or in use. Characteristics of STM 1. Long-term Memory (LTM) is that portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage. 1. Semantic memory is the basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept. 2. Episodic memory is the memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated. 13. Perceptual mapping offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a product's position. 14. Product positioning & repositioning positioning is a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment repositioning refers to a deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product. This can involve level of performance the feelings it evokes the situations in which it should be used, or who uses the product 15. Schema ex: A Partial Schematic Memory for Mountain Dew (a knowledge structure) 16.Self-referencing indicates that consumers are relating brand information to themselves. 17.Shaping: encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response (consume a free sample, buy at a discount , buy at full price) 18.Vicarious learning: Chapter 10 1. Types of conflict (approach/avoidance) Marketing strategies based on motivation conflict: (1) approach-approach motivational conflict A consumer who must choose between two attractive alternatives (2) approach-avoidance motivational conflict A consumer facing a purchase choice with both positive and negative consequences (3) avoidance-avoidance motivational conflict A choice involving only undesirable outcomes 2. Attribution theory 3. Brand personality Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand. 4. Consumer ethnocentrism Basically, ethnocentric individuals tend to view their group as superior to others. As such, they view other groups from the perspective of their own, and reject those that are different and accept those that are similar. Involvement Latent vs. manifest motives Manifest motives: motives that are known and freely admitted Latent motives: either were unknown to the consumer or were such that he was reluctant to admit them 5. Maslow's hierarchy of needs Four premises: (1) All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction (2) Some motives are more basic or critical than others (3) The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated (4) As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Belongingness 4. Esteem 5. Self-actualization 6. Motivation Motivation is the reason for behavior 7. Motive A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response. 8. Personality Personality is an individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situation 9. Prevention vs. promotion focused motives 10. Regulatory focus theory RFT refers to when a person pursues a goal in a way that maintains the person's own personal values and beliefs, also known as regulatory orientation. This theory operates on the basic principle that people embrace pleasure but avoid pain, and they then maintain their regulatory fit based on this standard. ...
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- Fall '11