10.Cell_structure_2011_ANGEL

10.Cell_structure_2011_ANGEL - Cell Structure (Ch. 6 pp....

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Cell Structure (Ch. 6 pp. 94-104) “Any living cell carries with it the experiences of a billion years of experimentation by its ancestors. You cannot expect to explain so wise an old bird in a few simple words.” Max Delbruck (Nobel Prize for genetics in the 1960s) Fossil algae about 1.1 billion years old
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Three questions regarding your assumptions: There are more prokaryotic species (i.e. bacteria) than all of the eukaryotic species (protozoa, algae, fungi, yeast, plants and animals) combined. A. Yes B. No
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Because they use light energy from the sun plants don’t have need to respire and therefore they lack mitochondria? A. Definitely Yes. B. Definitely No.
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Mitochondria -the “power-house” of the cell – are just found in the active cells like muscles that move, grow, or otherwise have need for lots of ATP. A. Yes certainly. B. No of course not.
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Mammalian cells have many more types of compartments (organelles) than do the simplest of eukaryotic cells such as a yeast cell (a unicellular fungus)? A. Yes. B. No.
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Why study cells? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________
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I. The types and sizes of cells. I. The types and sizes of cells. Cytology = microscopic study of cells Light m’scope resolution: about 0.2 um Electron m’scope resolution: about 2 nm You do not have to know the scale. Can a bacterium or a virus be seen under a light microscope?
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Mycoplasma (the smallest prokaryotic cells) are about 0.1 to 0.2 um in diameter. A gallery of cells: Interesting for study: closest to the minimum genome for almost free-living life (about 500 genes, parasitic on animal and plant cells)
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The most common shapes of prokaryotes: used for classification
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Early (left) and modern (right) prokaryotes Some prokaryotes (cyanobacteria = blue-green algae) are photosynthetic Besides shape prokaryotes are distinguished by their vast biochemical abilities and their evolution.
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Protists: group of diversely complex unicellular free-living eukaryotic cells Stentor, a ciliate You do not have to know these examples.
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Yeasts are much studied because they are a eukaryotic microorganism and so share much in common in cell biology, biochemistry and genetics with animals and plants. They are unicellular fungi.
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There are over 200 different types of cells in a vertebrate. They are differentiated for special functions. We will concentrate what they have in common.
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II. Cell organization and complexity A. Structures unique to prokaryotic cells 1. An ________ ________ _________ for adhesion and protection: often found 2. A cell wall of complex mesh-like bag of protein:carbohydrate macromolecules Differences between species for 2 are used for classification into ______ and __________ forms
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Penicillin blocks this peptide linkage
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course BS 111 taught by Professor Patterson during the Spring '05 term at Michigan State University.

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10.Cell_structure_2011_ANGEL - Cell Structure (Ch. 6 pp....

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