7.Study_guide_Cell_Structure

7.Study_guide_Cell_Structure - Study guide 7(Kopachik Cell...

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Study guide 7 (Kopachik) Cell Structure and Cytoskeleton Terms to know: Cytology Mycoplasma Yeast Capsule Gram negative and gram positive Nucleoid Nucleolus Chromatin Differential centrifugation Nuclear envelope, pores, lamina Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Peroxisome Lysosome Microvilli Plastids Central vacuole Plasmodesmata Endomembrane system Signal peptide Endosymbiont theory Secondary endosymbiosis Microtubule
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Alpha and beta tubulin Dynein Kinesin 9 + 2 arrangement Centrosome Centriole Microtubule-organizing center Microfilament Actin Myosin Intermediate filament Keratin Summary of main points. 1. Cells range in size and complexity from the smallest and simplest prokaryotic mycoplasma (about 0.1 um) to the free-living protists (about 1 mm) but most bacteria are 1-2 um and most animal cells 20-50 um in diameter. 2. Biophysical constraints limit cells from getting ever larger; the volume (and metabolism ) increases by the cube of length but the surface area (and ability to take up nutrients) increases only by the square of the length. 3. Prokaryotic cell structure is characterized by: more than just being small and lacking a nucleus. They: 1. Often have an extracellular polysaccharide capsule for adhesion; 2. A cell wall of peptidoglycan with two main types called the gram negative and gram positive based on the structure of the wall; 3. Often have flagella for motility; and 4. A nucleoid region where DNA is clustered. 4. Antibiotics target structural differences from eukaryotic cells in the prokaryotic
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course BS 111 taught by Professor Patterson during the Spring '05 term at Michigan State University.

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7.Study_guide_Cell_Structure - Study guide 7(Kopachik Cell...

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