Chapter 2 - 2 Eukaryotic Molecular Biology and Host Cell...

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Eukaryotic Molecular Biology and Host Cell Constraints 2
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Figure 2.CO: Colorized TEM of avian influenza A H5N1 viruses (gold) grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. Courtesy of Cynthia Goldsmith, Jacqueline Katz, and Sherif R. Zaki/CDC
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Basic Structure: - Simplest life forms known Virus particles - Genome(nucleocapsid; nucleic acid) Capsid(for protection) Enveloped viruses - protection; attachment; virulence factors (e.g. HIV, Influenzae, etc.) - All viruses carry their own polymerase.(DNA viruses carry DNA polymerase; RNA…) - Receptor-binding protein looks for the receptors of some cell for entry.(located in envelope) - Easier to enter host cell as lipid bilayers of virus and cell merge. - Naked viruses(receptor-binding protein in capsid) Virion(outside of cell) v. Virus(inside of cell) Figure 2.1a: Structure of a typical animal or human enveloped virus. Figure 2.1b: Diagram of a naked (nonenveloped) animal or human virus.
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2.1 How Many Genes Are Required to Build a Simple Virus Particle? Viruses have small genomes compared to other microbes and organisms. Economical (may need only 3 genes – Smallest genome known) (e.g. E.Coli – 1000 genes; Rice – 4000 genes): only 1 type of viral capsid/ receptor-binding protein/ viral polymerase(one factor of virus not relied upon host cell) - More complex the virus, more genes it contains . RNA: 1.7- 27 kilobase pairs (kbp) / usually < 12 genes(Most efficient life form) DNA: 3.2-200 kbp/ 4-200 genes/ Mimivirus= 1000 genes Viruses are dependent upon the host cell for replication
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2.2 Molecular Biology Review Central Dogma DNA(transcription) -> RNA(translation) -> proteins Replication, transcription, and translation are localized processes in the cell. - DNA simply contains information turns into RNA inside nucleus. - RNA translated into protein in cytoplasm Some degraded into a nucleotide pool. Some translated into protein, then undergo Post-Transitional Modification to make modified proteins. (Bacteria cannot undergo post-transitional modification in protein.)
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2012 for the course MIC 334 taught by Professor Gregorypaquette during the Spring '11 term at Rhode Island.

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Chapter 2 - 2 Eukaryotic Molecular Biology and Host Cell...

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