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3. The Seismic Experiment - 3 The Seismic Experiment...

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3. The Seismic Experiment Kurt J. Marfurt CPSGG The University of Oklahoma 3-1 Seismic Exploration for Hydrocarbons
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Learner Objectives After this section, you will be able to: Manually sort seismic data into common shot, common receiver, common midpoint gathers Reproduce the Normal Moveout equation given an offset, X , normal incidence time, T0 , and velocity, v Qualitatively predict the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of an NMO-corrected CMP gather of coherent reflection event contaminated by random noise 3-2
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2 3 1. The goal of seismic acquisition: To illuminate the subsurface with elastic wave energy (http://www.litho.ucalgary.ca/atlas/seismic.html)
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2 4 2. The goal of seismic processing: To generate an image of the earth’s subsurface (http://www.litho.ucalgary.ca/atlas/seismic.html)
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2 5 3. The goal of seismic interpretation: To convert seismic reflections into a geologic model Salt Sa lt Withdrawal basin Slumping Erosion Faults
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Seismic Acquisition
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2-7 The seismic reflection method
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Dynamite sources (lots of energy NOT put into the ground!)
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2- 9 The seismic reflection method
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2-10 www.indvehicles.com Vibroseis
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2-11 Vibroseis
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2-13 Vibroseis (une example extrème: le Forêt de Fontainebleau, France) If the ground is not permanently deformed, each vibroseis experiment is repeatable. It the noise is random, and the experiment repeated N times, the signal to noise ratio increases by SQRT(N). (Cambois, 2002) 1 sweep 1280 sweeps ?
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2-14 Geophones Vertical phone ‘Q land’ digital recorder www.westerngeco.com
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3- Vertical component geophones (http://0.tqn.com/d/geology/1/0/T/D/1/geophones.jpg) Internal view: The measured voltage is proportional to the change in the magnetic field, which is proportional to the velocity of the coil passing by the inertial permanent magnet.
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  • Fall '11
  • Marfurt
  • Reflection seismology, seismic reflection method, Seismic Acquisition, Roger Young, CMP gather, horizontally traveling ground

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