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Unformatted text preview: Experiment Experiment Experiment Experiment: : : : Single Single Single Single Displacement Reactions Displacement Reactions Displacement Reactions Displacement Reactions Background Skills/Concepts Predicting single displacement reactions Writing molecular, ionic and net ionic equations Understanding the dissolution of ionic compounds in water Relevant Reading Brown & LeMay, Chemistry the Central Science: Chapter 4 Background A single replacement reaction is a type of oxidation-reduction reaction. In a single replacement reaction (also called a single displacement reaction), an element reacts with an ionic compound to give a different free element and a different ionic compound. The general form of a single replacement reaction looks like this: A + BC B + AC Where A is an element, BC is an ionic compound consisting of positively charged B ions and negatively charged C ions, B is an element, and AC consists of positively charged A ions and negatively charged C ions. It is called a single replacement reaction because it appears as though the element A is replacing B in its compound. (In actuality, BC is usually a soluble compound, so it consists of separated B x+ ions and C x- ions. Since they are already separated, it isnt really accurate to say that any replacement is occurring.) If this reaction (A + BC B + AC) occurs as written, it is said that A is more active than B. If it does not occur, B must be more active than A. This assumes that A and B do not have the same exact activity. Recall that oxidation-reduction reactions involve a transfer of electrons. The substance that gets oxidized loses electrons and its oxidation number increases. On the other hand, the substance that is gaining electrons is getting reduced and its oxidation number is therefore decreasing. In a single displacement reaction, the element A is going from a zero oxidation number to a positive oxidation number. Its oxidation number is therefore increasing so it is being oxidized. The substance B, however is going from a positive to a zero oxidation number, and is therefore being reduced. Therefore, the more active element is the one that is oxidized more easily. 2 Single Displacement Reactions Caada Chemistry Department Version 1.0 To use a specific example, if a strip of copper metal is immersed in a solution of mercury (II) chloride, a reaction occurs:...
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- Fall '11