11 - Neuron - Neurons and Neurotransmitters Membrane...

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Unformatted text preview: Neurons and Neurotransmitters Membrane potential and action potential Anatomy of neuron Neurotransmitters and their receptors Learning Objectives Synaptic transmission Neuron The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. All neurons have three parts. Dendrites receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body that contains the nucleus, mitochondria, and other organelles typical of eukaryotic cells. The axon conducts electrical signals away from the cell body. Dendrites Cell body Axon Nerve terminals Three types of neurons: - Sensory neurons carry messages from sensory receptors to the central nervous system - Motor neurons transmit messages from the central nervous system to muscles or glands - Interneurons connect neuron to neuron Membrane Potential Cytoplasm Extracellular fluid Axon Membrane + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - Membrane potential !-70 mV Na + K + K + is higher inside the cell, while Na + is higher outside the cell. Na + K + Unequal distribution of cations and anions in the intracellular and extracellular fluids causes a difference of the electric potential across the plasma membrane. The resting membrane potential is !-70 Membrane Potential Cytoplasm Extracellular fluid Axon Membrane + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -...
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11 - Neuron - Neurons and Neurotransmitters Membrane...

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