17 - Glucose, Part 2 - Glucose Catabolism II Learning...

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Glucose Catabolism II Glucose Catabolism II Learning Objectives • Homolactic fermentation • Alcoholic fermentation • Metabolism of Hexoses Other Than Glucose • The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
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Glycolysis Fig. 14-3 Pyruvate: H 3 C-C-C O O - O
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One Glucose Molecule Yields Energy Pl T o P r ate Molec les Plus Two Pyruvate Molecules First Stage of Glycolysis Second Stage of Glycolysis Fig. 15-7 Fig. 15-15
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Metabolic Fates of Pyruvate Fig. 15-16 1. Aerobic conditions: completely oxidized 2. Anaerobic conditions in 3. Anaerobic conditions in to CO 2 and H 2 O via the citric acid cycle muscle: reduced to lactate yeast: ethanol + CO 2
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Homolactic Fermentation • Occurs in muscle, particularly during vigorous activity when: during vigorous activity when: - High demand for ATP - Short supply of oxygen Overall process of anaerobic glycolysis Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 P i ! 2 lactate + 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O + 2 H + Page 502 • Muscle fatigue and soreness is caused by low pH, not by lactate. Muscle can work long if the pH is kept constant
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Anaerobic Glycolysis: Low-Efficient but Fast Glucose ! 2 lactate + 2 H + " G 0’ = 196 kJ/mol The rate of ATP production by anaerobic glycolysis can be up Glucose 0 = - 196 kJ/mol to 100 times faster than that of oxidative phosphorylation When muscles work hard, they rapidly consume ATP and regenerate it almost entirely via anaerobic glycolysis.
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