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28 - Amino Acid Metabolism, Part 2

28 - Amino Acid Metabolism, Part 2 - Amino Acid Metabolism...

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Amino Acid Metabolism. Part II. ! Breakdown of amino acids ! Genetic diseases of amino acid metabolism ! Sulfonamide antibiotics L e arning Obj ec t iv e s ! Heme metabolism ! Fixation of Nitrogen ! Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
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Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids ! Mammals cannot synthesize certain amino acids and must obtain them from the diet. These amino acids are called e ss e ntial amino a c id s . Other amino acids are called non e ss e ntial amino a c id s . ! Essential amino acids: - Basic Arg + , His + , Lys + , - Branched-chain Ile, Leu, Val - Aromatic Trp, Phe - Other Met , Thr ! Nonessential amino acids: - Acidic Asp - , Glu - - Amidic Asn, Gln - Small-size Gly, Ala, Cys, Ser - Other Pro, Tyr
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Degradation of Amino Acids Fig. 21-13 ! Oxidation of amino acids yields 10 - 15% of the metabolic energy generated by animals. ! Standard amino acids are degraded to one of seven metabolic intermediates. Depending on the pathways of degradation, amino acids are divided into two groups: glu c og e ni c and k e tog e ni c
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Degradation of Amino Acids Fig. 21-13 - Glu c og e ni c amino a c id s are degraded to the intermediates of the citric acid cycle (pyruvate, - ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, fumarate, or oxaloacetate). These intermediates may be further converted to glu c o s e . - K e tog e ni c amino a c id s are broken down to acetyl-CoA or acetoacetate, the substances that may be converted to fatty acids or k e ton e bodi e s . ! Some amino acids are glucogenic and ketogenic.
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Degradation of Aromatic Amino Acids ! Tryptophan degradation pathway involves 16 reactions that lead to a ce toa ce tat e . ! Phenylalanine degradation starts with conversion to tyrosine. The reaction is catalyzed by ph e nylalanin e hydroxyla s e . Further route follows the pathway of tyrosine catabolism.
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