Expt 01 - Covalent Bonding and Molecular Models

Expt 01 - Covalent Bonding and Molecular Models -...

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EXPERIMENT ONE COVALENT BONDING AND MOLECULAR MODELS Today you will use ball-and-stick molecular model kits to better understand covalent bonding. You will figure out the structures of several different covalent molecules and then use the models to make those molecules. In order to draw proper Lewis structures chemists use two rules, Rule #1: # of valence electrons + # of bonds = 8 Rule #2: All atoms, except hydrogen, want eight electrons (also known as the octet rule). Valence electrons are determined by the column on the periodic table in which the atom is found. Carbon is found in column four of the periodic table and therefore has four valence electrons. To find the column an atom is in, simply count from left to right across the periodic table, ignoring the transition metals. Most periodic tables have the column number marked at the top of each column (in Roman numerals). If we know the number of valence electrons an atom has then it is a simple matter to determine how many bonds the atom must have. The table below gives the valence and the number of bonds for several common atoms as predicted by Rule #1. Atom Valence Bonds Total C 4 4 8 N 5 3 8 O 6 2 8 Cl 7 1 8 Each bond has two electrons and as can be seen by the table carbon has four bonds which means
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2012 for the course CHEM 1 taught by Professor Gelfand during the Spring '11 term at Solano Community College.

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Expt 01 - Covalent Bonding and Molecular Models -...

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