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02 redox energy

02 redox energy - CEE 266 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY...

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CEE 266 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Lecture 2 (Redox Reactions, Electron Transport & Energy Generation)
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Bioenergetics For the reaction A + B C + D, Δ G o = G f o [C+D] - G f o [A+B] Δ G = Δ G o + RT ln K Free energy calculations do not provide information on reaction rates Activation energy : energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state
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Activation Energy and Catalysis Figure 5.6
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Catalysis and Enzymes Enzymes Biological catalysts Typically proteins (though some RNAs) Highly specific Generally larger than substrate Typically rely on weak bonds E.G., hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, hydrophobic interactions Active site : region of enzyme that binds substrate
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The Catalytic Cycle of an Enzyme Figure 5.7
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Oxidation-Reduction Energy is conserved in cells from oxidation-reduction ( redox ) reactions This energy is conserved in the synthesis of energy-rich compounds (e.g., ATP) Redox reactions occur in pairs (two half reactions ) Electron donor : the substance oxidized in a redox reaction Electron acceptor : the substance reduced in a redox reaction
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Example of an Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Figure 5.9
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Oxidation-Reduction Reduction potential (E o ) : tendency of a compound to donate electrons Measured under standard condition Expressed as volts (V) Substances can be either electron donors or acceptors under different circumstances ( redox couple ) Reduced substance of a redox couple with a more negative E o donates electrons to the oxidized substance of a redox couple with a more positive E o
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