Study Notes 3 - The Extended Parallel Process (EPPM)...

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The Extended Parallel Process (EPPM) Learning models are too reactive individuals think in response to messages: Fear control process: Emotional processes=fear arousal and fear reduction Danger control process: Cognitive process=formulation of thoughts about threats/dangers and strategic responses Facts that will affect people which way they’ll go Ethical considerations Verbally intense language References to death, disability, disfigurement; death and sex metaphors Use of adverbs and adjectives to heighten the severity of outcomes and an individual’s susceptibility to them Source factors Source credibility: positively related to retention and acceptance of message when source is explicitly named Similarity: Increases compliance but mixed impact on perceptions of persuasiveness Message factors Argument quality: evidence (cognition) versus narrative (emotions/affect) Message sidedness: one versus two-sided (two-sided message addresses competition) Vividness: concrete imagery-provoking Message framing: loss versus gain Imminent versus distant/remote threat Danger control (what lead to danger control) Cognitive appraisals Threat appraisal: what is the threat, am I at risk, am I susceptible, is the threat severe? Efficacy appraisal: is the response effective, can I perform it? (include both self-efficacy and response- efficacy) High perceived efficacy conditions when perceived threat is high: DANGER CONTROL Efficacy must exceed threat perceptions to control fear
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Must believe recommended response is effective and I can perform it Fear control (what lead to fear control) Low perceived efficacy conditions when perceived threat is high: FEAR CONTROL. Defensive motivation strategies: Defensive avoidance: block further thoughts or feelings about health threat Denial: refuse to believe that one could experience health threat Reactance: prompts anger or outright rejection of the message Individual differences impact perceptions of threat and efficacy (because of different previous experience, people may react to fear differently) Elaboration Likelihood Model Motivation to Process message No Peripheral cue such as source attractiveness or credibility may still motivate processing and attitude
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Study Notes 3 - The Extended Parallel Process (EPPM)...

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