Geography 171 Final Study Guide

Geography 171 Final Study Guide - Geography 171 Final Study...

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Geography 171 Final Study Guide Uneven Development – BOOK DEFNITION Temporal (Historical Uneveness) Long-term growth or decline Cyclical perturbations (upswings/downswings) Spatial (Geographical Uneveness) “developed” v. “underdeveloped” CORES v. PERIPHERIES The Cumulative Causation Model “Growth breeds growth” Figure 7-17 in textbook  Gunnar Myrdal Rich Lands and Poor 1898 – 1987  Allen Pred UC Berkley Geographer 1936 – 2007  Multiplier Effect A new factory creates new jobs New workers spend their wages locally
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New service workers are required New service workers spend their  wages locally . . . . Therefore:  ME = The total number of new workers generated by one new industrial job:  e.g. 1:3 or 1:4 Population Threshold  The number of people necessary to support a certain service,  e.g. 25,000 to support a McDonald’s restaurant. (Each business has its own population threshold level [minimum  market size]) Core-Periphery Model Stage 1: Local Self-Sufficiency ( Autarky ) Cumulative causation starts Localized impacts Caused by advantages found in/near that location Spread/backwash effects begin Spread: growing demand for raw materials, food in center Backwash: center attracts highly skilled, new investment and advanced technology  Size of  hinterland  increases
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Stage 2: Core-periphery Emerge  Growth continues  Hinterland expands New centers are established on the periphery Minimizes the cost of distance! Core = developed, civilized, polite, cultured Periphery = underdeveloped, rugged, frontier-like Gradually periphery is integrated into the core… “leapfrogging” to new peripheries begin Semi-Periphery = former periphery now more integrated but subservient to the CORE Stage 3: New Core Emergence Peripheries struggle to become independent cores Decolonialism / decolonization  The process of achieving independence in a colonial territory  The process of removing the effects of colonization following independence  Stage 4: Integration of Cores Neocolonialism  When a former periphery/colony maintains economic, social relationships with its old  core Old relationships that are entrenched  New relationships on the peripheries’ terms  When a powerful foreign entity intervenes in the affairs of a former colonial state  Diagrams on Slides! New Peripheries: Colonies If far away—permanent population must move there to exploit the periphery;  
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If indigenous peoples are uncooperative, the colonizers must find ways of maintaining  control COLONIALISM:  Control by one power over a dependent area or people;  usually an  EXCLUSIVE relationship [DEPENDENCY] Carl Sauer (Berkeley):  “traditional” cultural geographer (1920s-1970s)
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Geography 171 Final Study Guide - Geography 171 Final Study...

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