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Unformatted text preview: 1 GY 111: Physical Geology GY 111: Physical Geology UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA Lecture 6: Mineral Classification Lecture 6: Mineral Classification Lecture 6: Mineral Classification Last Time 1. Elementary Chemistry (atomic structure) 2. Isotopes 3. The Periodic Table 4. Bonding Atoms & Atomic Particles z Atoms are composed of 3 fundamental particles: 1) Protons 2) Neutrons 3)Electrons z Protons & Neutrons always reside in the center of the atom termed the nucleus z Electrons are always located in the electron cloud in complex orbitals where they “orbit” the nucleus Nucleus (Protons + Neutrons) Electron Cloud (Electrons) z The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is variable and defines the different chemical elements (refer to the periodic table) Atoms & Atomic Particles 1 H 1 2 He 4 6 C 12 Atomic Number Atomic Weight Isotopes z The number of protons and electrons for an element does not vary, but the number of neutrons can. e.g., hydrogen +- 1 H 1- Stable Unstable 1 H 2- 1 H 3 Simple atomic structure: Source:http://www.amptek.com/xrf_3.gif 50 O 5 32 N 4 18 M 3 8 L 2 2 K 1 # of electrons (2n 2 ) "Name" Level (n) 2 The Periodic Table Chemical Bonding z Occurs through the action of the electrons in the outer shells of atoms. z Partially filled shells are less stable (higher energy) than filled shells (lower energy) 50 O 5 32 N 4 18 M 3 8 L 2 2 K 1 # of electrons (2n 2 ) "Name" Level (n) z Chemical reactions forming molecules strive to fill shells in atoms Chemical Bonding Three Major types: 1) Ionic bonding; exchange of electrons between atoms to form ions 2) Covalent bonding: sharing of electrons between atoms 3) Metallic bonding: freely exchangeable electrons...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course GLY 111 taught by Professor Haywick during the Fall '11 term at S. Alabama.
- Fall '11