112-pp16 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 112: Earth...

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1 Quiz 5 10:10-10:15AM GY 112: Earth History The Hadean and Archean Eons UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA Last time we covered… Evolution 2: How it works 1) Definition of Evolution 2) Darwin's law of natural selection ( gradualism, punctuated equilibria) 3) examples of evolutionary development The Origins of the Theory Important Definitions: Evolution: the transgenerational variation that occurs when social or biological forms adapt to their environment. The Origins of the Theory Important Definitions: Involution: When organisms do not seem to outwardly change, despite modifications in their environments Examples include the horseshoe crab, dragon flies, mosquitoes and Lingula (pictured above) How does evolution work? Austrian Monk Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) experimented with peas in his garden and through his work, he made 2 important observations about evolutionary changes (these are now considered biological principles): 1) Principle of segregation which states that genetically inherited features are passed on as separate, discrete units. They do not blend together. Today we call these units genes . 2) Principle of independent assortment which states that genetic traits are inherited independently. Chance and chance alone determines which combinations of genes will be transmitted from parent to offspring.
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2 How does evolution work? Evolutionary change can proceed via one of two pathways… 1) In a series of relatively sudden distinct steps ( Punctuated Equilibria ) Or 2) In a more or less continuous sequence ( Gradualism ). Punctuated Equilibria
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112-pp16 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 112: Earth...

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