302-pp13 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 302:...

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GY 302: Crystallography & Mineralogy GY 302: Crystallography & Mineralogy UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA Lecture 13: More Oxides Lecture 13: More Oxides
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Last Time Oxides and Hydroxides 1) Properties of select minerals 2) Economics (resources, reserves, extraction) 3) The chemistry of oxides/hydroxides 4) Banded Iron Formation (Chalk Board) Featured minerals: Iron
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Oxides and Hydroxides
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Oxides •Oxides involve a strong Ionic bond between metal cations and O 2- . •Classification is done on the basis of valancey (AX types). A 2 X : e.g., Cu 2 O (cuprite) AX : e.g., MgO (periclase) AB 2 X 4 : e.g., FeCrO 4 (chromite) Fe3O4 (FeO·Fe 2 O 3 ) (magnetite) ( Spinel Group = spinel, magnetite, chromite, etc.) Isostructural (exhibits solid solution)
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Oxides •Oxides involve a strong Ionic bond between metal cations and O 2- . •Classification is done on the basis of valancey (AX types). A 2 X 3 : e.g., Al 2 O 3 (corundum) (Hematite Group = corundum, hematite, ilmenite, etc.) AX 2 : e.g., SnO 2 (Cassiterite) (Rutile Group = cassiterite, rutile, pyrolusite, uraninite etc.)
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Hydroxides •Hydroxides involve a weaker ionic bond between metal cations and OH - (softish) •No real attempt to classify (many have variable chemistry, poor crystal structure) AlO(OH) : diaspore, boehmite Al (OH) 3 : gibbsite Typically mixed up with bauxite
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Iron Formation Three major types of iron deposits. 1) Replacement of limestone (Red Mountain Formation, Alabama); most are Jurassic in age Clinton Type Fe Deposits 2) Primary hydrothermal deposits (deep sea vents); most are PreCambrian (Algoma Type Fe Deposits) 3) Banded Iron Formations (hematite + jasper); most are Archean in age (Superior Type Fe Deposits)
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BIFs are thought to have been formed through oxygenation of sea water containing Fe 2+ (reduced iron). Fe
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302-pp13 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 302:...

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