302-pp15 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 302:...

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GY 302: Crystallography & Mineralogy GY 302: Crystallography & Mineralogy UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA Lecture 15: Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates Lecture 15: Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates
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Last Time Halides Select minerals Occurrences and Associations Featured minerals: Evaporites
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Halite (NaCl) Crystal: Isometric Pt. Group: 4/m 3 2/m Habit: cubic, hopper crystals SG: 2.17; H: 2.5 L: vitreous; Str: white Col: white (various shades) Clev: perfect [100], [010], [001] Optics: Isotropic (n=1.544) Name derivation: From the Greek halos (salt) Halide Minerals
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Fluorite (CaF Fluorite (CaF 2 ) ) Crystal: Isometric Pt. Group: 4/m 3 2/m Habit: cubic, octahedral crystals SG: 3.0-3.25; H: 4 L: vitreous; Str: white Col: variable Clev: [111] perfect Optics: Isotropic (n=1.434) Name derivation: From its elemental composition containing fluor Name derivation: From its elemental composition containing fluor ine ine Halide Minerals http://www.electric-lady-land.com/004.%20Fluorite-LW.jpg
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Evaporite Formation First Last Aragonite (ooids) Dolomite Gypsum Anhydrite Halite Sylvite*
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Today’s Agenda Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates 1. Select carbonate minerals 2. Sphalerite and galena (left over sulfides) Featured mineral association: MVT-ores (Mississippi Valley-type ores)
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Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates
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Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates •There are 70 carbonate minerals, over 60 borates and a few nitrates
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Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates •There are 70 carbonate minerals, over 60 borates and a few nitrates •All 3 types of minerals involve planar anion groups…. •… with the exception of BO 4 4- which is tetrahedral
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Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates •There are 70 carbonate minerals, over 60 borates and a few nitrates •All 3 types of minerals involve planar anion groups…. •… with the exception of BO 4 4- which is tetrahedral •Oxygen atoms are strongly covalently bonded in the anion (especially in CO 3 2- ), but bonding between the anion and the cation is ionic
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•Carbonates are by far the most important of the Class V minerals, three of which (calcite, dolomite and aragonite) comprise about 40% of all sedimentary rocks and more than 20% of the entire geological column. •They are both biogenic and chemically precipitated
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2012 for the course GLY 302 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S. Alabama.

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302-pp15 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 302:...

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