402-pp23 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 402: Sedimentary...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 402: Sedimentary Petrology Lecture 23: Shelves Last Time Carbonate Petrography 3 Beasties (know your enemy!) Corals Molluscs (gastropods and bivalves) Echinoderms Brachiopods Foraminifera Bryozoans Barnacles Skeletal Allochems Corals: common constituents in tropical limestones (especially rudstones/ floatstones). Rugose and Tabulate orders were calcitic. Scleractinian corals are aragonitic. PPL 1 mm Skeletal Allochems Molluscs: common constituents in all limestones. Come in many shapes and sizes. Snails are aragonitic. Bivalves come in aragonitic and calcitic forms. There is a wide variety of "skeletal fabrics" in this phylum. Bivalves PPL 4 mm Skeletal Allochems Echinoderms: common constituents in all limestones (especially Paleozoic-aged). Consist of sea urchins, sea stars, sea bisquits, and especially crinoids. Composed of calcite or Mg-calcite. Crinoid PPL (unstained) 1 mm Skeletal Allochems Brachiopods: common constituents in Paleozoic limestones. Rare in Mesozoic/Cenozoic limestones. Composed of calcite in either fibrous or prismatic textures. Brachiopod (fibrous) XN 1 mm XN Brachiopod (prismatic) 1 mm Skeletal Allochems Foraminifera: common constituents in all muddy limestones. Rarer in grainstones. Composed of calcite, look for planktonic and benthic forms. Benthic foram PPL 0.125 mm Skeletal Allochems Bryozoans: colonial beasties that are ubiquitous in Paleozoic limestones. Less common in Meso/Cenozoic limestones. Composed of calcite. First evolved during the Latest Cambrian or earliest Ordovician. They are your Gods. 2 mm PPL 4 mm Skeletal Allochems Barnacles: annoying arthropods that stick to the bottom of your boat. Formed from plates of calcite, they are common carbonate constituents, but really only dominate sediment in cold water limestones. 3 mm PPL 2 mm Today's Agenda Shelves Definition and a bit of history Factors controlling shelf sedimentation Carbonate Shelves Continental Shelves By definition: shelves are: "oceanic environments characterized by moderate water depths (10m to 150/200m) in which a variety of shallow marine and moderate depth facies occur" http://faculty.gg.uwyo.edu/heller/Sed%20Strat%20Class/SedStrat%207/SedStrat7.html http://faculty.gg.uwyo.edu/heller/Sed%20Strat%20Class/SedStrat%207/SedStrat7.html Continental Shelves Or... the low gradient, shallow marine areas that flank continents. http://faculty.gg.uwyo.edu/heller/Sed%20Strat%20Class/SedStrat%207/SedStrat7.html http://faculty.gg.uwyo.edu/heller/Sed%20Strat%20Class/SedStrat%207/SedStrat7.html Continental Shelves Shelves come in many flavors. Pericontinental shelves surround continents. Epicontinental shelves are flooded continents Epi(Cretaceous) Peri(modern) Continental Shelves Shelves have been studied for well over 100 years through a variety of techniques. Continental Shelves Shelves have been studied for well over 100 years through a variety of techniques. Idea about their formation and the processes that operate on them have evolved over this time... Continental Shelves Shelves have been studied for well over 100 years through a variety of techniques. Idea about their formation and the processes that operate on them have evolved over this time... e.g., Shepard (1932) postulated that shelves were "graded" Coarse sediment (sand) Fine sediment ("mud") Continental Shelves But detailed sedimentological analysis and geophysical mapping suggests that most shelves are not graded. Consider Australia.... Siliciclastic "wedge" (transported) Continental Shelves But detailed sedimentological analysis and geophysical mapping suggests that most shelves are not graded. Consider Australia.... Siliciclastic "wedge" (transported) Great Barrier Reef (in situ) Continental Shelves Currently, 50% of the world's pericontinental shelves are "relict" artifacts left over from the last sea level low stand (e.g., 6000 + years BP). Siliciclastic "wedge" (transported) Great Barrier Reef (in situ) Relict Continental Shelves Currently, 50% of the world's pericontinental shelves are "relict" artifacts left over from the last sea level low stand (e.g., 6000 + years BP). They are currently sites of reworking (especially bioturbation) and colonization by various benthic beasties, but little to no active sedimentation. Siliciclastic "wedge" (transported) Great Barrier Reef (in situ) Relict Continental Shelves We currently recognize 6 types of shelves (5 of which are "depositional"). 1.Siliciclastic/detrital (sand, silt, clay) 2.Biogenic (carbonate sediment, shells, etc.) 3.Residual (in situ weathering of rocky substrates) 4.Volcanic (recent volcanic rocks) 5.Authigenic (chemical precipitates like glauconite, phosphate, dolomite) 6.Relict (which we will now ignore) Time does not allow us to examine all these types of shelves, so we will only consider the first 2. Factors influencing shelf sedimentation Factors influencing shelf sedimentation Six factors are recognized as influencing shelf sedimentation. The last three are designated as "biggie" factors. 1) Sea level fluctuations (controls distribution of relict sediments, barrier reefs etc.) 2) Animal-sediment interactions (modifies the substrate) 3) Chemistry (produces authigenic minerals) Factors influencing shelf sedimentation Six factors are recognized as influencing shelf sedimentation. The last three are designated as "biggie" factors. 1) Sea level fluctuations (controls distribution of relict sediments, barrier reefs etc.) 2) Animal-sediment interactions (modifies the substrate) 3) Chemistry (produces authigenic minerals) 4) Type and rate of sedimentation 5) Climate 6) Type and intensity of shelf hydraulic regime ("energy") Biggies Factors influencing shelf sedimentation Type and rate of sedimentation Surprisingly, direct sediment supply to and across shelves is pretty negligible except in areas adjacent to very large rivers and estuary systems. Most sediment is strung out parallel to shorelines due to long shore drift. http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of02-368/images/cruisemap.jpg Factors influencing shelf sedimentation Type and rate of sedimentation River Sediment Wedge Situation 1: "Normal" - a balance between sediment input and longshore drift resulting in a classic shoreline-hugging sediment wedge. Modified from McCave (1972) Relict Shelf break Factors influencing shelf sedimentation Type and rate of sedimentation River Situation 2: "High-energy shoreline" mud is transported from the nearshore across much of the shelf before being deposited. Relict? Modified from McCave (1972) Relict Shelf break Factors influencing shelf sedimentation Type and rate of sedimentation River Situation 3: "very-high sedimentation" sediment blankets the whole shelf. This only happens adjacent to 12 rivers in the world (including the Mississippi). Modified from McCave (1972) Shelf break Continental Shelves Climate 250 0 Rainfall (cm) 0 Temperature (C) ex a m pl es 15% + gravel content Controls shelf sedimentation by its effects on the surrounding land mass (siliciclastic source area). Wet and hot (tropical) = intense chemical weathering and clay production Cold and dry (temperate) = physical weathering and sand/gravel production Fe w 45% + sand content 40% + mud content 40 Modified from Hayes (1967) Continental Shelves Hydraulic regime Three dominant processes are responsible for transporting, reworking and sorting sediment on shelves (including relict areas). 1) Tide-dominated shelves (17% of pericontinental shelf areas) 2) Ocean current-dominated shelves (3% of pericontinental shelves) 3) Storm-dominated shelves (80% of pericontinental shelf areas) We will only consider tide- and storm-dominated shelves Tide-dominated Shelves An excellent example of tide-dominated shelves is the English Channel From Reading (1975) Tide-dominated Shelves Macrotidal environment (+/- 4m tides) From Reading (1975) Tide-dominated Shelves Macrotidal environment (+/- 4m tides) Induces strong bidirectional currents From Reading (1975) Tide-dominated Shelves Macrotidal environment (+/- 4m tides) Induces strong bidirectional currents Produces elongated bedforms (ridges) From Reading (1975) Tide-dominated Shelves Macrotidal environment (+/- 4m tides) Induces strong bidirectional currents Produces elongated bedforms (ridges) Ancient sedimentary sections deposited on tidally-influenced shelves are characterized by herring bone cross-bedding From Reading (1975) Storm-dominated Shelves Along our shelf, we can expect a tropical storm every year, a category 1/2 hurricane every couple of years and a category 3/4 hurricane every 10 or so years. A category 5 storm might occur every 25-50 years. Storm-dominated Shelves A tropical cyclone can cause more change in a coastline (and on the shelf) in one day than fair-weather processes did in 10 years... ... but what about the really big storms? Storm-dominated Shelves e.g., 100 year, 500 year, 1000 year or 10,000 year storms? Although incredibly rare, they would make major impacts on shelf sediments that might be preserved in the rock record. http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/redspot_gal.gif Storm-dominated Shelves From Walker, R.G. and James, N.P. (1992). Facies Models: Response to Sea Level Change. Geological Association of Canada, 409p. Storm-dominated Shelves HCS (hummocky cross-stratification) From: Harms et al. (1975) From Walker and James (1992) Remember HCS? http://course1.winona.edu/csumma/images/sedstrux/hcs8a.jpg Carbonate Shelves Unlike their siliciclastic analogs, biogenic (carbonate) shelves are largely the products of in situ sedimentation. Moreover, carbonate shelves tend to be more complex for 2 reasons: 1) They are made up of diverse biological communities (and some are temperature-limited) 2) Evolution has changed those beasties over time. Temperate vs Tropical Carbonate Shelves Temperate vs Tropical Carbonate Shelves http://www.pal.uni-erlangen.de/uploads/pics/cwcabb3.jpg http://www.pal.uni- Chalk Board Carbonate Shelves No discussion on shelves would be complete without the Bahamas; a classic tropical biogenic (carbonate) shelf. http://www.nationsonline.org/gallery/Bahamas/bahamas360.jpg Carbonate Shelves No discussion on shelves would be complete without the Bahamas; a classic tropical biogenic (carbonate) shelf. http://www.nationsonline.org/gallery/Bahamas/bahamas360.jpg From Bathurst (1975) Carbonate Shelves Area: 700 x 300 km Depth: 0 m to 200m (mostly < 3 m) Tongue of Ocean: 3500m deep Mesotidal (2 to 4 m tidal range) Also storm-dominated 3.5 to 4 m of Recent sediment Sedimentation rate 1000mm/1000yrs From Bathurst (1975) Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. From Bathurst (1975) Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. Geologists: Lithofacies (i.e., sediments) From Bathurst (1975) Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. Geologists: Lithofacies (i.e., sediments) Biologists: Biofacies (i.e., beasties) From Bathurst (1975) Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. Geologists: Lithofacies (i.e., sediments) Habitat/substrate (i.e., reef, rocky, sediment...) Biologists: Biofacies (i.e., beasties) http://www.fishchannel.com/images/article-images/reef-habitat2-500px.jpg Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. Lithofacies 1) reef (reef + coralgal) 2) oolitic (oolite + grapestone) 3) mobile oolite 4) mud From Bathurst (1975) Tropical Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. 1) reef (skeletal rudstone/floatstone) From Bathurst (1975) From Bathurst (1975) Tropical Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. 2, 3) oolitic (grainstone/packstone) From Bathurst (1975) From Bathurst (1975) Tropical Carbonate Shelves The Grand Bahama Bank can be divided up into a series of facies. The type depends on your discipline. 4) mud (mudstone) whitings http://strata.geol.sc.edu/Bahamas/pages/ http://strata.geol.sc.edu/Bahamas/pages/ From Bathurst (1975) From Bathurst (1975) Upcoming Stuff Homework 1) Non skeletal thin section lab due Today 2) Moscow Landing Field trip departs Friday at 4PM 3) Moscow Landing introduction/methods due Friday April 22 Lab this Week Non-skeletal Allochems Next Lecture: Reefs ...
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