ENT205 - 10/20/11...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/20/11 Manyyearsago,aBri2shscien2st,J.B.S.Haldane,wasaskedbya memberoftheclergywhatcouldbeinferredabouttheworkof theCreatorfromastudyofHisworks.Haldaneisreportedto havereplied, "Hehadaninordinatefondnessforbeetles!" Coleopteradiversity Largestorderofinsects 350,000describedspeciesin167families 30,000NorthAmericanspeciesin131families Es2matedthatatleastseveralmillionaddi2onalspecies remaintobediscoveredanddescribed 2/3ofallbeetlesoccurin8families:Bupres2dae,Carabidae, Cerambycidae,Chrysomelidae,Curculionidae,Scarabaeidae,Staphylinidae,and Tenebrionidae Curculionidaeisthelargestfamilyworldwidewithover50,000 describedspecies StaphylinidaeislargestfamilyinNorthAmerica InsectOrderColeoptera(thebeetles) HOLOmetabolous Characters Mouthparts Beetlesarethemostdiverseinsectorder largestorder,40%ofallinsectspecies +250,000sp,30,000intheUSandCanada 500families VERYDIVERSE allhabitats herbivores,scavengers, predators,parasites Feedonallplantparts; storedproducts;skin; fibers;wood Diverselarvalforms haveaheadcapsule mayormaynothavelegs Adult alwayschewing Antennae,legs 3rdinstar larvae variable,manyuniquetypesusedinID Legs pupa variable,manyuniquetypes #oftarsalsegmentsareusedinID Wings Forewing=leatheryorhard(elytra) meetinastraightlineonback) heldupinflight Hindwing=membranous (elaborateplea2ngtofoldunderforewing) egg 2ndinstar larvae 1stinstar larvae Coleopteracharacters "coleo"=sheath,"ptera"=wing Frontwing(FW) =elytron(pl.=elytra) hardened,nonmembranous "hard"(rigid)or "sog"(somewhatflexible) dullorshiny smoothorsculptured, grooves,ridges,punctures bare,setose,scales "long"(completelycoveringabdomenwhenfolded) "shortened"(leavingsomeabdominalsegmentsexposed) Hindwings(HW) membranous,usuallylonger thanelytra,but2pscanbe foldedupinvariouswaysto fitunderneaththeelytra Cupedidae 2prollsup en2rewingfoldsup 2pfoldsback 1 10/20/11 Beetles Order:Coleoptera Elytra:modifiedforewing Pronotumprominent Completemetamorphosis (holometabolous) Largestorder(40%ofallinsects) Chewingmouthparts Foundeverywhereexceptsaltwater andpolaricecaps Beetles Mostbeetlesherbivoresor scavengers Inlargenumberscancauseserious damagetocropsandforests Directlyorbytransmijngdisease Manyarepredators Antennae filiform(threadlike) moniliform(beadlike) serrate(sawlike) pec2nate,bipec2nate "symmetrical club" Tarsalformula frontmiddlehindlegs (promesometatarsi) apparently 333 555(primi2ve) 2ndseglobed 444,333 554,544 apparently pseudotetramerous 4443rd "apparently seglobed 444"(penul2matesegment minuteandhiddeninlobesof rd) 3 333 "apparently 333"(penul2matesegment minuteandhiddeninlobesof 2nd) clawsarenotasegment simple,toothed,cleg, pec2nate apparently444 lobed (comblike) 555with simpleclaws plumose(feathery) clavate(graduallyexpanded) capitate(clubbed)terminal segmentsabruptlyexpanded, symmetricalorasymmetrical flabellate(fanshaped) lamellate(plates) geniculate(elbowed) "asymmetricalclubs" toothed cleB pecCnate Eyes,etc. Eyesround,oval, emarginate(notched), divided Ocellipresentorabsent eyes roundedor oval emarginate Gyrinidae Groundbeetles(Carabidae) Nocturnalpredators Bombardierbeetle quinones divided divided emarginate mentum gularsutures pygidium 2 10/20/11 "groundbeetlesand2gerbeetles" Family:Carabidae Carabidae "carabus"=akindofbeetle N.Amer.189genera,2635sp. Smalltolargesized(0.766mm) Mostlyblackorbrown,afewbrightly colored,frequentlymetallic,2gerbeetles ogenwithcharacteris2cmarkingsonthe elytra Antennaefiliform Mostliveontheground,afewarboreal. Manyarenocturnal,hidingduringday, most2gerbeetlesarediurnal. Adultsandlarvaeofmostarepredators onsmallerinvertebrates.Tigerbeetle larvaeambushpreyfromaburrowlikea "jackinthebox". Afewareomnivorous,andsomefeed onseedsandfruit.Thelarvaeofafew areparasi2conthepupaeofflies. Usuallyconsideredbeneficial. 1stabd seg divided enlarged trochanter Carabidae F.Carabidae:thegroundbeetles Characters headogennarrowerthanpronotum antennaeinsertedbetween eyesandbaseofmandibles usuallyblack,shiny "roundsandbeetle" Omophronsp. Carabidae:Cicindelinae"2gerbeetles" Antennaeinserted betweeneyeand mandible Tricondylasp.S.E.Asia 2gerbeetlelarva Groundbeetlesusually donotusetheirwings, butcanflytolights Omusdejeaninocturnal2gerbeetle abdominal"hooks" anchorlarvainburrow, providingleveragefor backflip,andprevent strugglingpreyfrom dislodginglarva 3 10/20/11 Tigerbeetles(Ciccindelidae) Predators Colorfulgroup,ogenwithmetallicsheen Larvaeliveinburrowsinground Ecology larvaeliveinaburrow alsopredaceous F.Cicindelidae(2gerbeetles) [some2mesplacedinthesamefamilyasgroundbeetles] Characters bulgingeyes sicklelikemandibles markingsonwings;metallic;iridescent longlegs(huntonhotsurfaces) walkonthe2psoftheirtarsalclaws bombardierbeetles Brachinussp. hydrogenperoxide+ hydroquinones+enzymes= explosivedischargeof hot,toxicgas (aimedwith"nozzle") Bombardierbeetle 500species uniquedefense mechanism Bombardierbeetles reservoir hydroquinones HO OH reservoir hydroquinones HO OH H2O2 hydrogenperoxide musclecontrolled valve H2O2 hydrogenperoxide musclecontrolled valve pquinone O O catalases thickwalled reacConchamber peroxidases H2Oandfreeoxygen HEAT MixtureBoils somevaporizes createspressure valveisforcedclosed HEAT Boiling! 100C=212F Chemicalsejectexplosivelyoutofopening at2pofabdo. 4 10/20/11 F.Silphidae(carrion,burying,orSextonbeetles) Characters large=11.5inches antennaeclubbed,clavate darkw/red,yellow,orangepatern Carrionbeetles(Silphidae) Adultsfeedonmaggots Larvaefeedoncarrion Mayemitafoulodor Silpha(carrionbeetle) Nicrophorus(buryingbeetle) EcologyMosteatcarrion Incrediblystrong ama2ngpairwilldrag smallanimalandburyit eggslaidoncarcass Family:Staphylinidae "rovebeetles" "staphylinos"=akindofbeetle N.Amer.523genera,4153species Smalltomediumsized,mostblackor brown,afewbrightlycolored Bodytypicallyelongateslender,nearly parallelsided Elytrausuallyveryshort,usuallyexposing 5or6abdominalsegments,rarelymore elongateandconcealingabdomen Antennaefiliformtoclubbed Adultsandlarvaeareusuallypredators orscavengers.Someadultsfeedingon pollen.Apparentlyalluseextraoral diges2on.Thelarvaeofafewspeciesare parasitesonthepupaeofflies. Adultsandlarvaeoccurinagreatvariety ofhabitats.Understones,alongshoresof streamsandlakes,oceanbeaches,carrion, manure,fungi,flowers,inantandtermite nests,insectgalleries,underbark,soiland leafliter. F.Staphylinidae(rovebeetles) Characters slender,elongate shortelytra abdomenisvisible wingstuckedunderneath mayraiseabwhenrunning Rovebeetle(Staphylinidae) Shortelytra Excellentfliers predators Ecology secondlargestbeetlefamilies(species)inNA predaceous;espfoundindecayingmaterials 5 10/20/11 Staphylinidae "unusual"Staphylinidae Stenusspp. preycatching elongate body shortened elytra extensiblelabium Omaliinaeocelliandlongerelytra F.Scarabaeidae(scarabs) AdultCharacters usuallyoval heavybodied lamellateantennae front2biamaybeenlarged Ecology PlantfeedersTurf&croppests Truewhitegrubs(Phyllophagasp)na2ve Japanesebeetle1916 Larvae Cshaped whitegrubs Ecology Europeanchafer Dungbeetles male&femalefinddung tunnelunderitorrollit,layeggs larvaedevelopindungball speciesareogenspecialistsondungofpar2cularanimals 1940,NY 1990s,Michigan Chaferinwinterwheat 6 10/20/11 DungbeetlesinAustralia Na2vedungbeetlesevolved tohandledrymarsupialdung Metallicwoodboringbeetles(Bupres2dae) Clickbeetles(Elateridae) Adultsatractedtodeador freshlycuttrees Larvaeformgalleries Clickbeetles/wireworms Larvaeproblemsincrops 1788firstcatleimported Wetcatledungaccumulated: *pasturesdegraded *flyproblems 1960s:Imported45speciesof dungbeetlesfromAfrica... F.Bupres2dae(metallicwoodborers) Characters metallic,prety(espunderside) characteris2cshape Ecologyofthewoodborers adultsatacktreesforegglaying stressedtrees,freshlycutlogs maytakeyearsforlarvaetodevelop(poornutri2on) manyseriouspests(invasivespecies) Dshapedexithole larvae `flatheaded'woodborers characteris2cshape w/abig,flathead BBBBronzeBirchBorer EABEmeraldAshBorer Larvaetravelundetectedinwoodfromoverseas 7 10/20/11 8 10/20/11 F.Elateridae (clickbeetles;wireworm) Characters proandmesothoraxarehinged prosternalspine,mesosternalsocket posteriormarginofpronotum=points serrateantennae Ecology adultsfeedonmanyplants larvae=wireworms;rootpest prosternalspine socket Potato Onions Garlic Bulbs Corms Fireflies(Lampyridae) Producelight Luciferin luciferase F.Lampyridae(lightening`bugs'orfireflies) Characters pronotumcovershead elytraisleathery lasttwoabsegmentsareyellowish Firefly`light'=2absegments(towarnoffpredators?) luciferin&luciferase+ATP+O2=light reac2onis99%efficient,only1%givenoffasheat [overhead&tablelights=1030%] glowworm femalessitonvegeta2on malesflash iftheflashis`correct', sheflashesback ma2ngtakesplace Fireflyspeciesdifferen2a2on flashpatern 2meofthenight Ecology:Adults&larvae arepredators 9 10/20/11 F.Dermes2dae(dermes2d,skinbeetles) Characters small,oval;clubbedantennae;coveredwithhair,scales Ecology feedonnumerousplant,animal products;leather,rugsfur,wool, museumspecimens,foods Insomespecies,afemaleatractsa maleofadifferentspecies,eatshim. F.Coccinellidae:ladybirdbeetles[ladybugs] Characters ovalorround ogencolorful shortantennae (36segments) tarsiapparently333 Ecology adults/larvaepredators w/afewexcep2ons Dermes2dsareuseinmuseumstocleanskeletons AsianMul2coloredladybeetle Harmoniaaxyridis [orthat%*&##*^%*ladybug] Twicestabbed 7spoOed Cmac Mexican beanbeetle TheRumor Wasintroducedby: theUSDA theDNR the"feds" the"government" the"(unprintable)government" astateDeptofAg MSU someotheruniversity spacealiens Thetruth Someearlyintroduc2on inthe1970sfailed Probablyintroduced attheportofNewOrleans Movednorth;#sexploded whensoybeanaphids AppearedintheU.S.. Ladybirdbeetleeggs,larvae,andpupae arecommoninthefield 10 10/20/11 Beneficial ...butalsoapest Leafbeetles(Chrysomelidae) Herbivores Leafminers Rootborers Leafconsumers Householdpest=stains,smells;allergies Fruitpest=fruitquality,winequality leafbeetlelarvae Chewholes,scrape, defoliate Keyinsectpestinsome cropsystems F.Meloidae(blisterbeetles) Characters narrow,cylindricalbeetles elytraogenleathery,maybeshortened pronotumnarrowerthanhead Coloradopotatobeetle Ecology adultsareplantfeeders;severalaredirectpests(potato,tomato) deadadultsharvestedintoforagescanharmhorses larvaearebeneficialpredatorsofgrasshoppereggs Asparagusbeetle Cerealleafbeetle Whyisablisterbeetlecalledablisterbeetle? BodyfluidscontainCantharidin, ablisteringsubstance....soldas....? An Important Service Announcement Brought to you by the Union of Concerned Entomologists SpanishFly `botledpassion'! Formen&women! Longer,stronger!! Formatureaudiences Predaciousdivingbeetles(Dy2scidae) Whirligigbeetles(Gyrinidae) PDBfreshwaterhabitats Swimwithhindlegsinunison Airbubbleunderelytra Overwinterasadult WBcalmareasoflakes/ponds Takeninternally...movestokidney...urinarysystem inflames,irritatesmembranes LD50isverysmall(0.5mg/kg) abdominalcramps,vomi2ng,diarrhea, kidneydamage,cardiacarrest,death LyGavesicatoria Moreinfo?htp://www.sas.org/tcstest/weeklyIssues_2005/20051223/feature2/index.html Compoundeyedividedinupperand lowersec2ons Surfaceheadfirst 11 10/20/11 Dy2scidae Family: DyCscidae "predaceousdivingbeetles" "dytes"=diver="iscus"implies diminu2ve,therefore"litlediver" N.Amer.52genera,500species Smalltolargesize,blackorbrown, ogenwithyellow/blackmarkings Bodyelongateoval,streamlined, convexaboveandbelow HindlegsflaOenedandfringedwith hairs;legsmoveinunisontoswim Antennaelong,filiform,palpsshort Adultsandlarvaeaqua2cin lakes,ponds,streams Adultsandlarvaeare predators Adultsstoreairunderelytra Replenishairbycomingto surfacetailfirst HindCbiaandtarsi flaOened,fringed coxa 1stabd seg divided DyCscidlarva headandjaws Dy2scidae Weevils(Curculionidae) Largestfamilyin AnimalKingdom Allareplanteaters Prominentsnout returnstroke hairsfold powerstroke hairsextend breathingairsupplystorage swimminghind legsmoveinunison F.Curculionidae:snoutbeetles,weevil,barkbeetles Characters headextendedintoasnout chewingmouthpartattheend clubbed+geniculateantennae Clubbed +geniculate chewing Ecology biggestfamilyofbeetles&insects,thuslargestanimalfamily plantfeeders;canchewholesinseeds,nuts,fruit,stems 12 10/20/11 Weevildamagemouthpartallowsforchewingintoplants BollWeevildamagemajorpestofcoton,the"$10billionbug" Sweetpotatoweevil Whitepineweevil originallylivedinMexicoonna2vecoton movedintodomes2ccotonproduc2oninthe1890s wipedoutthecotoncropasitmovedeast peoplewentbankrupt;townsdied;peoplemovednorth pecan Larva=vermiform(leglessw/ahead) Weevilistheposterchildforpes2cideproblems 19171940s:calciumarsenatedust late1940s1960s:DDT,DDT,moreDDT 1970's1980s:methylparathion("cotonpoison") late1990s:transgenicBtcoton 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course ENT 205 taught by Professor Bird during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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