Diptera - 11/8/11 Diptera FliesOrder:Diptera Onepairofwings

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Unformatted text preview: 11/8/11 Diptera FliesOrder:Diptera Onepairofwings A8achedtothemesothorax Halteres A8achedtothemetathorax Func?onasstabilizers Suckingmouthparts(piercing) Sucking Sponging lapping Order:Diptera "di"=two+"ptera"=wing Usuallywithonepairof membranouswings,"hindwing"(if present)reducedtoasmallpairof halteresthatarebelievedtoserve asgyroscopicbalancingorgansthat vibrateduringflight. mouthpartsaremodifiedfor piercing/suckingorsponging/ sucking Compoundeyesusuallylarge Antennaevariable,filamentous, feathery,orreducedand inconspicuous Highlydiverseinhabitatsandhabits terrestrial,aqua?cherbivores, scavengers,predators,parasitoids, parasites Flynames Thecommonnamesofalltrueflies(Diptera)havetheword"fly"separated byaspacefromtheprecedingpartofthename. cranefly,beefly,robberfly,housefly,etc. InallnonDipterathathavethename"fly"associatedwithit,"fly"isnot separatedfromtheprecedingpartsofthename. halteres mayfly,dragonfly,stonefly,scorpionfly,bu8erfly,etc. Manyeconomicallyimportantspecies Bloodsuckers:onlythefemalessuckblood,usingitforeggproduc;on. Irrita;on(andseverebloodlossat;mes):mosquitoes,blackflies,horse fliesanddeerflies,stableflies,noseeums,botflies. Dipteraantennae w/terminal style (spinelike) Diseasetransmissionbyinocula;on:malaria,yellowfever,WestNile virusandotherencephali;des,sleepingsickness,dengue,filariasis(=elephan;asis), riverblindnessandothers. filamentous (6ormoresegs) Nematocera (3rdw/"falsesegments") annulated 2ndw/longitudinalsuture (calyptratemuscoids) Otherformsofdisease:myiasis(=larvalinfesta;ons),andphysicalcarriers (suchashouseflies)ofdiseaseorganisms. Plantpests:Fruitflies(Tephri;dae)worldwideinmanyfruits;rootmaggots (Anthomyiidae)incabbage,onions,etc.;stemborersandgallmakers (Cecidomyiidae),fewothers. aristate 3rdsegmentwithhairlikeorplumosearista 1 11/8/11 Dipteramouthparts Dipteratarsi pulvillus=padundertheclaw (plural)=pulvilli empodium=bristleorpad betweenclaws pulvillus tarsal claw empodium bristlelike (aristate) empodiumpu lvilliform(pad like) Dipteralifecyclecompletemetamorphosis Family:Psychodidae"moth flies" "psyche"=bu8erfly+"od"=resembling Small,mothlike,hairyflies Longantennae,moniliform,with whorledsetae Wingsbroad,pointedapically,with manyparallelveins,very"hairy" Foldedwingsheldrooflikeoverbody pupae eggs adults larvae Larvaeoccurindecayingvegetable ma8er,mud,moss,orwater.Somefeed ontheslimecoa?nginsidedrains.Adult "drainflies"arefrequentlyseenin lockerrooms,restrooms,andother placeswheredrainsarecleaned infrequently. Someadultsarebloodsucking,andcan transmitdiseases. Family:Tipulidae "craneflies" "-pula"=awaterspider LargestDipterafamily,1600speciesN.A. Elongatebodywithextremelylong,delicate legs Diverselarvalhabitats:aqua?c,semiaqua?c, insoil,roangwood,moss,fungi,roots. Larvaemostlyscavengers,afewaqua?cforms predaceous Adultsofmostspeciesliveonlyafewdaysand probablydonotfeed.Afewadultswith elongatemouthpartsfeedonnectar. Europeancraneflyandrangecraneflyare pestsfeedingongrassroots Craneflies(Tipulidae) Mosquitoes(Culicidae) CFcommoninmoist areas Donotbite Mosquitoes Larvaeinwater Onlyfemalesbite Vectordisease 2 11/8/11 Family:Culicidae "mosquitoes" "culic,culex"=agnat Longlegged,delicateflies Antennaeofmalesplumose,offemales bristly Longproboscis(malesandfemales) Larvaeaqua?c,feedonalgaeandorganic debris,afewpredatory Femalesbloodsuckingonmanykindsof birdsandmammals(bloodmealrequired foreggmatura?on) femalesaltmarshmosquitobi?nghuman Mosquitoes Anophelesbitewiththebodyat anangletotheskin.Larvaerest paralleltowatersurface. Othermosquitoesgenerallybite withthebodyparalleltothe skinandtheheadbentdown. Larvaeresthangingatanangle. Anophelesspp. LARVAE (nobreathingsiphon) Culexspp.,Aedesspp. andothers (breathingsiphon) Malesfeedonnectar malemosquitowithplumoseantennae Byfarthemostimportantpest family,becauseofdisease transmission. Anophelesspp. Culexspp,Aedesspp. andothers Mosquitoes Culicidae Toxorhynchitesbeneficialpredator Culex Culexfemalelayingeggrad femaleAedesmale Anopheles Aedesaegyp-i femaleAnophelesmale Anopheleseggslaidsingly Culicidaesubfamilies Culicinaemanyspeciesofmedicalimportance Aedesspp.yellowfever,dengue,encephali?s Culexspp.filariasis,encephali?s,WestNilevirus Family:Ceratopogonidae "bi?ngmidges","punkies","noseeums" "cerato"=horn+"pogon"=beard Tiny,many1mmorless Antennaefilamentoustoplumose Larvaearescavengersaqua?c,semi aqua?c,ormoistterrestrial Mostadultfemalesarebloodsuckers Hostsincludehumans,othermammals, birds,andotherinsectsfrommany differentorders. Somespeciescanvectorlivestock diseases Tiny"noseeum"amonghairsonarm. Biteisverypainfulforitssize. (referringtoplumoseantennaeofsomemales?) Anophelinae Anophelesspp.malaria Toxorhynchi;nae1USspecies,"elephantmosquito" adultsnotbloodfeeders,larvaepredaceousonothermosquitolarvae usedforbiocontrol 3 11/8/11 Family:Simuliidae "blackflies" "simul"=imitate,together Small,humpbacked Adultsswarmaroundandarevery irrita?ngeveniftheydon'tbite. Femalesofsomeareseverebiters,but odenyoucan'tfeelthebitesbecauseof anan?coagulantthatdeadensthepain. Somearevectorsofhumandiseases:river blindnessinAfrica,onchocerciasisin Africa,C.&S.Amer. Larvaeliveinwellaeratedwater(streams orrocky,windsweptshores). Blackflies Femalebloatedwithbloodmeal Wingbroad,withenlargedanalarea Wingvena?onheavyinfront,very weakbehind Larvaeclingingtorockinstream Family:Asilidae "robberflies" "asilus"=agadfly Smalltolargesized,thoraxstoutwith longlegs,abdomenelongate,tapering; hairytonearlybarebutfaceusually "bearded" Adultsarepredatorsanda8acka varietyofinsects,capturingpreyon thewing,odenwiththepreybeingas largeorlargerthanthemselves Toxicsalivakillspreyrapidly,andthey caninflictapainfulbite Larvaearepredatorsinsoil,decaying woodonotherlarvalinsects Asilidswithprey "grassfly" (Subfamily:Leptocerinae) moreslender,lesshairyand withoutbeard ea?ngdolichopodidfly topofheaddepressedbelowtopofeyes face"bearded" Asilidae Someareverygoodmimicsofbumble bees,butasilidssitonleavesortwigs wai?ngforprey(realbumblebeesusually don'tsitonleaves) Horse&DeerFlies(Tabanidae) Largecoompound eyes Onlyfemalesbite Needproteinfor developingeggs Semiaqua?c Theirlarvaeliveindecayinglogsand arefrequentlymistakenforbeetle larvae 4 11/8/11 Family:Tabanidae"horsefliesanddeerflies" "tabanus"=agadfly,horsefly Stoutbodied,mediumtolarge Dis?nc?ve"arrowheadbody/wingshape" whenres?ng,headtriangular Powerfulfliers Adultfemalesbloodfeedingwithvery painfulbitesomearepestsoflivestock Malesfeedonpollenandnectar Larvaeofmostspeciesaqua?cpredaceous (Tabanus)orscavengers(Chrysops) "greenhead"horseflyTabanus Somearevectorsofhumanand animaldiseases Tularemia,anthrax,Qfever,Loaloa, trypanosomiasis,filariasis Manygenerabuttwomostcommon "horseflies"(Tabanusspp.) "deerflies"(Chrysopsspp.) Tabanidae VeinsR4andR5divergent,enclosingwing;p "deerfly"Chrysops Tabanidae arrowheador triangularshape inres?ngposi?on Hoverflies(Syrphidae) Manyresemble bees Larvaeeataphids Donots?ng "deerfly" "deerfly" malewith con?guouseyes "hoverfliesorflowerflies Family:Syrphidae Syrphidae"flowerflies" "syrphos"=agnat,akindoffly Highlyvariableinsize,shape,color Manyarewasporbeemimics Adultsareodencommonaboutflowersand frequentlyhover Adultsfeedonnectarandpollen Thelarvaearehighlyvariableinboth morphologyandhabits Manyarebeneficialpredatorsonaphids Somearescavengersinpollutedwater(therat tailedmaggots) Somearepredaceousinantnestsandresemble wartyslugs(Microdon) Somefeedonlivingplants("bulbflies") 5 11/8/11 syrphidlarvae rattailedmaggot syrphidlarvae aphidpredators Microdonsp.antpredator beneficial aphid predators aphidpredator 2different speciesof larvaeinthis photo syrphidlarva Merodonequestristhe "narcissusbulbfly" larvaearepestsonplant bulbs Syrphidae Manyareexcellentbeeandwasp mimicsbutarecompletelyharmless Microdonpiperi larvaeand/orpupae (pupateinsidelastlarvalskin) predatorsinantnests Fruitflies?(Drosophilidae) Feedondecaying vegeta?on Eggsovipositonripeor fermen?ngfruit Feedonyeasts Houseflies(Muscidae) Spongingmouthparts Fewwithpiercing Spreaddisease Fewaqua?cspecies 6 11/8/11 Somepestmuscids Stableflies(Stomoxyscalcitrans)are viciousbitersaroundtheankles.Theyare verywaryandarehardtoswatwithabare hand. Thelarvaeliveindecayingvegeta?onalong lakesandstreams Whichiswheretheadultsareusually found. Tsetsefly Tsetseflies(Glossinaspp.)arehostspecific bloodfeedersthatonlya8ackhumansin theabsenceofgame.Buttheycan transmittrypanosomesthatcauseAfrican sleepingsickness. Tsetsefliesareaboutthesizeofhorseflies anda8ackinasimilarfashion. Tsetsefliesareviviparous.Onelarvaata ?medevelopsintheuterus(asdothelouse flies,Hippoboscidae).Whenfullydeveloped, itislarvipositedandimmediatelypupates. Tsetsefliescarrytheirlarvaewiththemso theycankeepupwithmigra?ngherdsof animals. stablefly muscid mouthparts "piercing" Stablefly, Hornfly "lapping" Housefly, Facefly Hornflies(bite)andfaceflies (don'tbite)areca8lepests. Family:Calliphoridae"blowflies" "calli"=beau?ful+"phor"=thief,abee Smalltolarge,odenmetallicblueorgreen, butsomegray Larvaearescavengersoncarrion,dung,and similarmaterialsandareimportantin recyclingthesematerials Afewinfestwoundsoropensores,some feedingonlyondecaying?ssue,someon living?ssues(screwworms) Afewareparasitesofearthwormsandland snails,andperhapssomeotherorganisms Calliphoridae hypopleuraandpteropleura WITHbristles usually2notopleuralbristles (rarelya3rdshorterbristle) "greenbo8leflies" Calliphoridae Calliphoridae maggotsoncarrion femaleoviposi?ng 7 11/8/11 Calliphoridae Thescrewworm,Cochliomyiahominivorax, Isaseriouspestofca8le,infes?ngopenwounds andfeedingonliving?ssues.Thesterilemale techniquehasbeenusedtoeradicateitinthe UnitedStatesandMexicoatleastasfarsouthasthe IsthmusofTehuantepecinMexico.Femalesonly mateonce,soinunda?ngthehabitatwithmillions ofsterilemalesreducesthechancesofthefemales beingabletosuccessfullylayeggs. Calliphoridae Adultclusterflies,Polleniarudis,areblackish,andcoveredwithcurly,goldenyellow bodyhairs.Thelarvaeareinternalparasitesofearthworms.Adultsspendthewinter inprotectedloca?onssuchasolder,looselyconstructedhouses,andodenendup insideinsteadofoutsidewhenitwarmsupinthespring.Theycanbenuisancepests similartoboxelderbugsandAsianladybeetles. "Myiasis"isthetermusedforlarvalinfesta?onsoffliesinhumansandotheranimals. Thesemaybeinopenwounds,subcutaneous,nasopharyngeal,orgastrointes?nal. Somespeciesofblowfliesthatonlyfeedonnecro?c?ssuesareusedtopurposelyclean outinfectedwoundsonhumans.Besidescleaningoutdecayed?ssue,nitrogenous wastefromthemaggotskillsbacteria. Family:Sarcophagidae"fleshflies" "sarco"=flesh+"phag"=eat Smalltolarge,usuallyblackwithgray thoracicstripesandcheckerboard abdomen,nevermetallic;?pofabdomen (terminalia)odenorange Mostlarvaearescavengersoncarrion,a fewareparasitoidsofotherinsects,anda fewparasitesofvertebrates.Thegenus Wohlfahr-aa8acksmammals(including humans).Someparasi?zeburrowing Hymenoptera. Sarcophagidae Aristausuallyplumoseatthebaseonly (?pbare)(comparetoCalliphoridae) Stripedthorax, checkerboard abdomenisa commoncolor pa8ern R5cell narrowed apically Sarcophagidae Fleshflies(Sarcophagidae) Layeggsin Carrion Dung Openwounds Larvaeofsome speciesareparisites "friendlyfly"or"governmentfly" Sarcophagaaldrichi (syn.=Arachnidomyiaaldrichi) importantparasitoidcontrollingoutbreaksof foresttentcaterpillars "Friendlyflies"being"friendly"(and anuisance) 8 11/8/11 Blowflies(Calliphoridae) Tachinidflies(Tachinidae) BFlayeggsoncarrion anddung Somespecieslayeggsin openwounds TFparasitesofmany insects Eggsdepositedonhost orplant 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course ENT 205 taught by Professor Bird during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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