ENT205_Hemip_Homop - 12/1/11 Hemiptera Cimicidae...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/1/11 Hemiptera Cimicidae F.Cimicidae bedbugs flat,wingless bloodsucking makingacomeback Thetermbugisusedbymanypeopletodescribeanyinsecttheysee.Toan entomologistthetermbugreferstoinsectclassifiedintheOrderHemiptera,and areknownas"truebugs".HemipteraandinsectsintheOrderHomoptera(which isnowclassifiedasaSuborder)asmanyentomologistsclassifythesegroups together.AdisFncFvefeatureofHemipteraisthatbasalpartoftheirfrontwing isleatheryandtheapicalporFonismembranous.Hemipteraallhavesucking mouthpartswiththebeakarisingfromthefrontofthehead.Allhave incompletemetamorphosis. Goodnight,sleep5ght,don'tletthebedbugsbite. 1 12/1/11 HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Hydrometridae "watermeasurers,marshtreaders" "hydro"=water,"meter"=measure Small,sFcklike,bodyandlegslongand slender,~8mm Headaslongasthorax,eyesbulging Antennaelongandconspicuous Usuallywingless Normallycreepslowlyalongmarginof shore,onfloaFngvegetaFon,orover surfaceofwater PredatorsonsmallaquaFcorganismson orjustbeneathwatersurface 2 12/1/11 HemipterasuborderHeteroptera HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Gerridae"water striders" "gerri"=awickershield Elongatebody,withverylongmiddleandhind legs Frontlegsshorter,usedforgraspingprey, middleandhindlegsusedlikeoars Wingedorwingless Tarsiclothedwithfinehairsandaredifficultto wet,allowingthebugtorestonthesurfacefilm AquaFcorsemiaquaFc,skaterapidlyoverthe watersurface Predatorsorscavengersoninsectsthatfallinto water Onegenus(Halobates)occursontheopen oceans Family:Belostoma/dae "giantwaterbugs" "belo"=asFng,"stomato"=mouth Large,elongateoval,fla]ened Frontlegsraptorialforcatchingprey Middleandhindlegsfringedwithhairsfor swimming Shortstoutbeak,toxicsalivasubduesprey rapidly,caninflictpainfulbitestopeople(= "toebiters") Femalelayseggclustersonbacksofmalesin Belostoma(easternUS)andAbedus(western US) AquaFcpredators Goodfliers,o`ena]ractedtolightsatnight. SuspectintransmissonofBuruliulcerdisease inAfrica BelostomaFdae Insomespecies,femaleslay theireggsontothebacksofthe males.MalescarrytheeggsunFl theyhatch. Belostoma BelostomaFdae Lethocerusagiantwaterbug,someFmes calledan"electriclightbug"sincetheyare o`ena]ractedtolightsatnight.Ourscan reachabout3incheslong,andevenlarger onesoccurinthetropics.Theselarge predatorscancatchtadpoles,smallfish, andevensmallwatersnakes beak grasping frontlegs Abedus HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Nepidae "waterscorpions" "nepa"=ascorpion Twobasicshapes: Ranatraelongate,slender Nepa,Curictaoval,fla]ened respiratorysiphon Nepidae Cercimodifiedintolongcaudal breathingtube Frontlegsraptorialforcatchingprey Middleandhindlegselongatefor crawling(poorswimmers) Ambushpredators:Ranatrahidingin vegetaFon,Nepao`enresFngon bo]om Notethat"waterscorpion"isallone word,sincetheyarenotscorpions Nepa,Curicta "scorpionshape" Ranatra Ranatrasp. 3 12/1/11 HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Gelastocoridae "toadbugs" "gelast"=laugh+"core"=abug Oval,fla]enedwithbulgingeyes resemblesmalltoadsinappearance butalsocrypFcallycolored Middleandhindlegsforcrawlingand hopping,frontlegsthickenedfor graspingprey Riparian,foundonshoresofpondsand streams Predatorsonsmallinsectsandother organisms Gelastocoridae AdultsshowingvariaFonincolor pa]ernsprovidingcrypsis Immaturewithcapturedprey Immature HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Corixidae "waterboatmen" "coris"=abug,akindoffish Elongate,dorsallyfla]ened,FWwith darkcrosslines Hindlegsoarlike,fringedwithhairs Swimrightsideup(compareto NotonecFdae) Corixidae Anteriorviewofheadandfrontlegs. Headprolonged,beakveryshort Frontlegmodifiedfor scoopinginparFcles Fronttarsispatulateandfringed, modifiedforsweepingupsmallfood parFcles(algae,minuteaquaFc organisms).CaningestsmallparFclesof solidfood.Afewspeciespredaceous. Donotbitehumans O`enthemostabundantaquaFcbugs inponds Corixidae HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Naucoridae "creepingwaterbugs" "nau"=aship,"cor"=abug Broadlyoval,fla]ened,marginofhead andpronotumconFnuouslyrounded Frontfemoragreatlythickened,frontlegs usedforgraspingprey Foundinquietwatercrawlingover vegetaFon,butgoodswimmers Predators,bitereadilyandpainfully SuspectintransmissonofBuruliulcer diseaseinAfrica 4 12/1/11 HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Notonec/dae"back swimmers" "noto"=back+"nect"=swimming Elongate,dorsallyconvexor "keeled"(triangularincrosssecFon) Swimontheirbackswithdorsalsurface acFngasakeel Hindlegsgreatlyelongate,oarlike, fringedwithswimminghairs Frontlegsusedforgraspingprey Excellent,rapidswimmers PredatorsonsmallaquaFcorganisms' Bitereadilyandpainfully NotonecFdae AquaFcadultmigraFons ManyadultaquaFcHeteropteraandaquaFcColeopteraareexcellent fliers,andtheymayflyshortorrelaFvelylongdistanceslookingfornew bodiesofwater. Mostofthesebodiesofwatershineorglisteninthesun,soanything thatshineslikewatermaybelandedupon.Theyareo`enconfusedbyand landuponshinydarksurfacesofcars,bouncingoffthesurfacesasthey a]empttoplungeintowhattheythinkiswater. HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Miridae"plantbugs" "miri"=wonderful LargestHemipteranfamily,about10,000 species(aboutofallHemiptera) Sizeandshapesomewhatvariable,usually 510mm,somewhatso`bodied. Mostareplantfeeders,afewpredators Quiteafewpestspecies Tarnishedplantbug Alfalfaplantbug Fourlinedplantbug CoAonfleahopper cuneus SomeplantfeedingMiridae tarnishedplantbug alfalfaplantbug. Miridae Labopsspp. agrasspest Deraeocorusspp.aregeneralist predators,butmanyarespecificto oneorafew"host"plants. Plantbugfeedingdamage(catfacing)onpeach, probablybytarnishedplantbug 4linedplantbug. yellowplantbug gardenfleahopper Deraeocorisadult Deraeocorisnymph antmimicplantbug 5 12/1/11 HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Tingidae"lacebugs" "5ngo,5nctus"=dye,paint Small(<5mm.),somewhat fla]ened,marginsofpronotumand hemelytralaterallyexpanded Dorsalsurfaceofbodyofadults elaboratelysculptured,giving lacelikeappearance(nymphs usuallyspiny) Plantfeedersonherbaceousplants ortrees Feedingdamagecausesayellow spopngoftheleaves Tingidae Manyclosedcellsinwingsgivinga lacelikeappearance HemipterasuborderHeteroptera HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Nabidae "damselbugs" "nabis"=agiraffe Mostarebrown,elongateoval,some black,teardropshaped,somewhat resemblesmallreduviids Family:Anthocoridae "minutepiratebugs" "antho"=aflower,brilliancy+"cor"=bug Oriusinsidiosus smallsized(25mm) Adultsblackandwhite(piratecolors), nymphsreddishoryellowish Predatorsonaphids,mites,thrips,psyllids, insecteggs Beneficialpredatorsinmanycropsystems Anthocoridae HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Pentatomidae"sFnk bugs" "penta"=five+"tom"=cut(5 antseg,5notchesonsideofabd??) Round,ovoidorshieldshaped,green, brown,orbrightlycolored Defensivescentglandspresentonside ofthoraxbetweenmiddleandhind coxae,verypotent Mostareplantfeeders,afew beneficialpredators Severalpestspecies "harlequinbug"crucifers "greensFnkbug"manyplants Oriusinsidiosus Anthocoristomentosus Cydnidae 6 12/1/11 Pentatomidae The"harlequinbug",apeston cabbageandrelaFves, primarilyintheSouth PredaceoussFnkbugs 2spoAeds/nkbugPerillusbioculatus "greensFnkbug" Brochymenaconiferbark sFnkbug sFnkbugeggs andnewly hatchednynphs SpinedsoldierbugPodisusmaculiventris 7 12/1/11 HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Bery/dae"sFlt bugs" "beryt"=??? Mostareslender,brownish,59mm Legsandantennaeverylongand slender UsuallyfoundonvegetaFon,most feedonplants Somespeciesarepartlypredaceous BeryFdae head enlarged,spinosescentglands 8 12/1/11 HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Lygaeidae"seed bugs" "lygae"=gloomy Somewhatvariableinsize,shape,color Mostfeedchiefly,butnotexclusively onseeds Foundonplantsorground "smallmilkweedbug" Lygaeidae Lygaeidae Nysiussp.Lygaeidae Rhyparochromidae Geocoridae "largemilkweedbug" Lygaeidae Pachygronthidae Rhyparochromidae Rhyparochromidae HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Geocoridae"big eyedbugs" "geo"=earth+"cor"=bug Geocorisspp.predatorsonsmall insectsbutwillalsofeedonplants whenpreyisscarce Importantinbiocontrol Geocorisadult Geocoridae Geocorisnymph Donotconfusewith similarappearingLabops spp.(Miridae), agrasspest.Note:eyesdo notextendbackwards, hemelytrashortened, cuneuspresentinLabops HemipterasuborderHeteroptera Family:Coreidae"leaf footedbugs" "core"=abug Variableinsize,shape,color, Defensivescentglandspresentonside ofthoraxbetweenmiddleandhind coxae ManywithhindFbiaexpandedinto "coniferseedbug"Leptoglossusspp. leaflikeplates Mostareplantfeeders,afewmaybe predaceous Someplantpests(squashbug) Coreidae "mesquitebug" 3540mm "Floridaleaffootedbug" 2530mm Acanthocephalasp. 9 12/1/11 ClassificaFon "Homoptera"morphology old"Homoptera" "homo"=same"ptera"=wing Wings(whenpresent)heldrooflikeatrest FWmembranousorslightlythickenedthroughout,HW alwaysmembranous Auchenorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha "Homoptera"wings FWusuallymuchlarger thanHW VenaFonreducedin mostSternorrhyncha Cicadidae Psyllidae Feedingandhoneydew Somesuckinginsectstapintothephloem orxylemofplantsandimbibevast quanFFesofsap,whichcanbehighin sugarcontent,butlowinothernutrients. ToavoidpassinglargequanFFesofliquids throughtheenFredigesFvesystem,many "homopterans"havedevelopedatypeof filterchamber.Loopsofthehindgut intertwinewiththeforepartofthe midgutandexcesssugarsandwaterare passeddirectlyoverintothehindgutby acFve(sugars)andpassive(water) diffusionandexpelled.Thisconcentrates theessenFalnutrientsthattheinsect needs,andeliminatesmuchofthe volumeoffluidsandsugarsitdoesn't need.TheconcentratedsugarysoluFon expelledouttheanusiscalledhoneydew. Phylloxeridae Aphididae Adelgidae Aphididae HemipterasuborderAuchenorrhyncha Family:Cicadidae "cicadas" "cicada"=acicada,treecricket Theyarenot"locusts"(whichare Cicadas 8" Malaysiancicada (largestinworld) MostarelargeanddisFncFvely shapedrelaFvetotheother Auchenorrhyncha. 3ocelli(othersonlywith2) Bothwingsmembranous Soundproducingorgans(tymbals malesonly)andauditoryorgans (tympanabothsexes)onbasal abdominalsegments Eggsarelaidinstemsandtwigs Immaturesliveunderground,sucking fluidsfromplantroots Take28yrs("annual")or13yrsor17yrs ("periodical")tocompletedevelopment migratorygrasshoppers=Acrididae). smallest cicadas 5/8" periodicalcicada dogdaycicada 10 12/1/11 Cicadas AnnualversusPeriodicalCicadas Annualcicadas take28yearstodevelop "broods"overlap,withsomeadults emergingeveryyear seldomemergeinlargenumbers thesearetypicallythecicadasweseeand hearlateinthesummerhereinMichigan take13or17yearstodevelop atanygivenlocaFononlyoneortwo"broods" mayemergeoverany13or17yearperiod usuallyemergeinlargenumbers (upto1.5millionperacre) thesearethecicadasthatwereinthenewsin 2004 Adultcicadashavesucking mouthparts,andcontrarytopopular belief,theymustfeedasadults.They sucksapfrequentlyfromstemsof treesandshrubs. Periodicalcicadas ovipositor Eggsarelaidinterminalbranchesandtwigs.Inabout610 weekstheeggshatchandFnynymphsdroptogroundand burrowintosoil.OviposiFonbyamulFtudeoffemalescan damageorevenkillindividualtwigs,butseldomcauses permanentharmtothetree. Periodical(13or17year)Cicadas ThegenusMagicicada7species 17yearspp. M.septendecim M.septendecula M.cassini 13yearspp. M.tredecim M.tredecula M.trecassini M.neotredecim(newin2000) Thereare12differentbroodsof17yearcicadas(numberedIXandXIII andXIV). Thereare3broodsof13yearcicadas(numberedXIX,XXIIandXXIII). Thismeansyoucanfind17yearcicadasineasternNorthAmericain12of 17years,but13yearcicadascanbefoundinonly3of13years.The13 yearcicadasaremoresouthern. Cicadas datesarelastyearbroodemerged Linesindicatewherea13&17yearbroodoverlapped 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2007 2008 1998 2001 2002 Allothersare17yrbroods 13yrbroods AnnArbor,Michigan BroodX2004 BroodXIII2007 Periodicalcicadas emergedinSW Michiganin2007 red=wellestablished historicalemergence records 11 12/1/11 Cicadidae Inmostinsectsitisthefemales tryingtoa]ractthemalesby pheromones,etc. ThesingingOrthopteraand Homopteraarenotable excepFons(malesa]racFng females). CicadasoundproducFon Soundisproducedbythetymbals,apair ofribbedstructuresonthesidesofthe firstabdominalsegmentofmales. Soundisproducedwhenthetymbalis vibratedbymusclesa]achedtoit. Thetymbalsareexposedinmostspecies, orcoveredbyaflapinsome. Hollowchambersandmembranesinthe thoraxandabdomenactasresonaFng chambers.Volumeandpitchare controlledbyopeningandclosingthe operculaflaps(operculum=sing.)(reducedor absentinfemales) opercula closed Membrane coveringa resona/ng chamber tymbal (wingremoved) tymbal opercula open Cicada"hearing" Cicadashearwithtympana,apairof membranousstructuresintheabdomen thatactlikeeardrums(tympanum=sing.) Bothmalesandfemaleshavetympana,but theyareusuallylargerinthemales. operculum tymbal malesfemales tymbal no tymbal ovipositor tympana (operculumli`ed) tympanum opercula no opercula (operculumremoved) Cicadasongs"periodical"species chorus Magicicadaseptendecim(17yr) courtship2 courtship3 Cicadasongs"annual"species "northerndusksinging cicada" Tibicenauletes "scissorgrindercicada" Tibicenpruinosa Magicicadacassini(17yr) "dogdaycicada" Tibicencanicularis Magicicadaseptendecula(17yr) "greenwingedcicada" Diceroproctavitripennis M.tredecim(13yr) M.neotredecim(13yr) (songfromareawhereoverlaps withneotredecim) (songfromareawhereoverlapswith tredecim,otherwisesoundslike septendecim) "swampcicada" Tibicenchloromera "Say'scicada" Okanaganarimosa 12 12/1/11 Order:Psocoptera"barklice, booklice" Order:Psocoptera psoc=rub,small,ptera=wings [referringtothegnawinghabitsoftheseinsects] "booklice&barklice" Smallsized,so`bodied Facebulging Antennaelongandslender Chewingmouthparts Prothoraxo`enreduced Wingedorwingless,ifpresent,heldroof likeoverbody Simplemetamorphosis "Barklice"foundonbark,leafli]erfeed onalgae,lichens,molds,pollen,dead insects "Booklice"foundinbuildingsfeedon cerealsandstarchyproducts Psocoptera Order: Phthiraptera "lice" Order:Phthiraptera"lice" Philopteridae chewingmouthparts phthir=lice,aptera=withoutwings Small,wingless,dorsoventrallyfla]ened Mouthpartschewingorpiercingsucking Formerlyconsideredas2orders: Mallophaga(chewinglice) Anoplura(suckinglice) Chewinglicefeedonskin,fur,orfeathers Suckinglicefeedonbloodofhost Ectoparasitesofbirdsandmammals ManyareirritaFngpestsofpoultry,livestockand humans Somearediseasevectors Menoponidae 13 12/1/11 Family:Menoponidae"bird lice" meno=standfast+pon=pain Menoponidae Headbroadlytriangular, expandedbehindeyes 2tarsalclaws EctoparasiFconbirds Importantpests: "chickenbodylouse" "chickensha`louse" Philopteridae Family:Philopteridae "birdlice" philo=love+pter=feather Headmoresquareorrectangular, somewithbroadspinesbehindeyes 2tarsalclaws EctoparasiFconawidevarietyofbirds Importantpests: "chickenheadlouse" "largeturkeylouse" TurkeylouseDucklouse 5segant exposed 2tarsal claws TrichodecFdae Family:Trichodec/dae "mammallice" tricho=hair+dect=bite Headmoreroundedorblunt conical Tarsiwith1claw EctoparasiFconavarietyof mammals Importantpests: "ca]lebiFnglouse" "horsebiFnglouse" "dogbiFnglouse" Bovicolabovis, ca]lelouse antennaeusually 3segmented singletarsalclaw 14 12/1/11 BiFngca]lelice SuborderAnoplura"suckinglice" anopl=unarmed+ura=tail??? Piercingsuckingmouthparts Headusuallynarrowerthanthorax Antennaeexposed,filiformortapering Tarsi1segmented,withasinglelargeclawthat opposesa"thumb"atthebaseoftheFbia Family:Haematopinidae "mammalsuckinglice" haemato=blood+pin=drink Headlongandconical Eyesabsent,butprominentocularpoints present Legslong,equalinlength Tarsiwith1claw,pincerlike EctoparasiFconungulate(hoofed) mammals Importantpests: "hoglouse" "horsesuckinglouse" 2spp.of"ca]lesuckinglice" Family:Pediculidae "humanheadandbodylice" peducul=ali]lefoot Legsshort,equalinlength Tarsiwith1claw,pincerlikeclaw Pediculushumanushumanus"bodylouse" Pediculushumanuscapi5s"headlouse" Suckbloodandtransmitdiseases,primarilybyhost'scrushingandscratching; epidemictyphus relapsingfever trenchfever(WWI) Headlice(mostlyeggs) Family:Pthiridae "humancrablouse" phthir=lice Bodyshort,thoraxaswideasabdomen Tarsiwith1claw,pincerlike Pthiruspubis"humancrablouse" Pthirusgorillae"gorillalouse" Notknowntotransmitdiseases Lousenit(egg) 15 12/1/11 Parasitesofwalruses,seals, andrivero]er Somespeciesburrowinto theskinofthehost 16 ...
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