Introduction_cont_1 - Wingmovement...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Wingmovement Eleva.onisthemovementofthe wingupwards. Depressionisthemovementof thewingdownwards. Prona.onisthe.l.ngofthe leadingedgeofthewing downward. Supina.onisthe.l.ngofthe trailingedgeofthewing backwards. Awingstrokeisthemovementof thewingfromtheupmosttothe downmostposi.onorviceversa. Onewingmovementcycle=2 wingstrokes,anupstroke+a downstroke. Therearethreetypesofwingmuscles: 1. Directmusclesinsertintothewingbaseandserve inwingfolding,wingdepression,and/orwing twis.ng. 2. Indirectmusclesdonotinsertintothewing,but movethewingindirectlybymovingthethorax. 3. Accessorymuscleschangetheshapeofthethorax, whichmodifiesthemechanicalproper.esofthe thoraxandthusalsothewingstroke. Halliday,Resnick,andWalker. Fundamentalsofphysics.4thed.1993. LiSisgeneratedbythreedifferentmechanisms LiSforcesaregeneratedbythe changingangleofaUackofthe wingasitrotatesduringthe stroke.Thiscausesthe phenomenonofdelayedstall, wheretheangleofaUachis maximizedtoincreaseliSforces. LiSisgeneratedbythreedifferentmechanisms Rota.onalliSoccurswhentheedgesofthe wingsquicklyrotateatthebeginningofthe downstrokeandupstroke,crea.ngeddieson topofthewings.Thevor.cesonthetopsof thewingsmovetheairfasteroverthewing thanunderthewinggenera.ngliS. LiSisgeneratedbythreedifferentmechanisms As the insect drives its wing upward, it has the option of using another mechanism to gain lift--wake capture. This gains an insect added lift by recapturing the energy lost in the wake. As the wing moves through the air, it leaves whirlpools, or vortices, of air behind it. If the insect rotates its wing (dotted line), the wing can intersect its own wake and capture its energy in the form of lift. Inlargeinsects,atthestartofthedownstroke,airflowsaroundthetrailingedge ofthewing,crea.ngastar.ngvortex. Asthewingsdepress,thevor.cesrotatefasterandjoinoverthebodyofthe insect. JustaSerthebeginningoftheupstroke,airflowstotheundersideofthewing, crea.ngastoppingvortex. Thestoppingvortexacceleratesontheupstrokeandjoinswiththestar.ng vortex. Whenthewingspronate,theringissentbackwards. Thevortexringscreatedcausetheairwithinthemtomovebackwardsand downwards. Asaresult,theinsectissentforwardandupward. CompoundEyes InsectSensorySystems 2530,000Facets Detectcolorand movement InsectSensorySystems Ocelli(SimpleEyes) Primarilylightdetec.on InsectSensorySystems Antennaecandetectmo.onand orienta.on,odor,sound,humidity,anda varietyofchemicalcues AntennaeExamples Chewingmouthparts Labrum Mandible Maxillae Labium Hypopharynx InsectMouthparts PiercingSucking InsectMouthparts Siphoning InsectMouthparts Sponging Legs OnePairAUachedtoeachoftheThoracic Segments VarietyofFormandFunc.on Legs Ambulatorylegsareusedforwalking. Cursoriallegsaremodifiedforrunning. Legs Fossorialforelegsaremodifiedfordigging. Legs Natoriallegsaremodifiedforswimming. Theselegshavelongsetaeonthetarsi. Legs Raptorialforelegsmodifiedforgrasping (catchingprey). Legs Saltatorialhindlegsadaptedforjumping. SensoryAppendage Cerci(Circus) Abdomen EggLayingApparatus Ovipositor Cicada Katydid Ichneumonid Wasp ModifiedOvipositor S.ngingDevices BreathingandRespira.on TrachealSystem Spiracles HistoricalPerspec.ve Carboniferous 280340mya Dragonflieswith3S. wingspan! DifferentPlantsDominated Specula.onHigher AtmosphericOxygenlevels ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course ENT 205 taught by Professor Bird during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online