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Introduction_cont_1 - Wingmovement Eleva. wingupwards...

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Wing movement Eleva.on is the movement of the wing upwards. Depression is the movement of the wing downwards. Prona.on is the .l.ng of the leading edge of the wing downward. Supina.on is the .l.ng of the trailing edge of the wing backwards. A wing stroke is the movement of the wing from the upmost to the downmost posi.on or vice versa . One wing movement cycle = 2 wing strokes, an upstroke + a downstroke.
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There are three types of wing muscles: 1. Direct muscles insert into the wing base and serve in wing folding, wing depression, and/or wing twis.ng. 2. Indirect muscles do not insert into the wing, but move the wing indirectly by moving the thorax. 3. Accessory muscles change the shape of the thorax, which modifies the mechanical proper.es of the thorax and thus also the wing stroke.
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Halliday, Resnick, and Walker. Fundamentals of physics. 4 th ed. 1993.
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LiS is generated by three different mechanisms LiS forces are generated by the changing angle of aUack of the wing as it rotates during the stroke. This causes the phenomenon of delayed stall , where the angle of aUach is maximized to increase liS forces.
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  • Fall '08
  • BIRD
  • Labrum Mandible Maxillae, LiSforcesaregeneratedbythe changingangleofaUackofthe wingasitrotatesduringthe, Antennae­candetectmo.onand orienta.on,odor,sound,humidity,anda varietyofchemicalcues, insect rotates

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