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Unformatted text preview: soybean summer fall winter Overwintering host (Rhamnus) spring Reproduc2onwithoutfer2liza2on Allaphidsina summercolony areFEMALE NOMALES NOMATING Parthenogenesis Livebirth
Babies Noegg development2me. Babies feed within hours. Telescopingofgenera2ons
Grandmothers containtheir daughters& granddaughters. Differentbodytypesfordifferentjobs
Alateadult =winged =dispersal Polymorphism Apterousadult =nonwinged =makebabies DRONE QUEEN DRONE SUBFAMILY SUBFAMILY Sexdetermina7oninhoneybees
(2n) Queen ~20%ofanimalspecies arehaplodiploid. Unfer7lizedeggs(n)will developasmale.
Dronesarehaploidclonesofthe queen. (n) Drone Fer7lizedeggs(2n)will becomefemale. Queensorworkers,dependingon thediet Unfertilized eggs (n) Fertilized eggs (2n) Coevolu7on Theprocessbywhichtwodifferentorganisms evolvetogether. InsectsandFloweringPlants FossilRecordSimultaneousBurstofDiversity withtheEvolu7onofAngiosperms Darwin'sOrchidandthepredictedmoth
In1862,CharlesDarwinwasstudyingtheorchidspeciesAnagraecumsesquipedale,now commonlyknownasDarwin'sorchid,thecometorchid,theChristmasorchidortheStarof Bethlehemorchid,whichisfoundonlyinMadagascar.Oneofitsuniquecharacteris7csisa flowerspur,thetubewhichcontainsnectaratthebo\om,thatisover12incheslong.Darwin predictedthatonlyaninsectwithatongueof1213incheswouldbeabletoreachthenectar andpollinatetheorchid,andthatsuchaninsectmustexistforthestructuretohaveevolved ontheorchid.ManypeoplethoughtDarwinwascrazybecausenoinsecthadeverbeenfound withatonguethatlong!ThelargestEnglishsphinxmothshadtonguesthatwereonlyaslong astheirbodies,oraround45".AspeciesoflargehawkmothwidespreadinAfrica,Xanthopan morganii,wasknowntohaveaproboscis7.5incheslongbuteventhatwasnotlongenough. Darwindiedin1882,neverknowingwhetherhispredic7onwastrueornot.However,in 1903,asubspeciesofXanthopanmorganii wasfoundinMadagascarthatdidindeedhave aproboscisover12incheslong.Itwasgiven thescien7ficnameXanthopanmorganiipraedicta (Rothschild&Jordan)andiscommonlycalledthe "longtonguednightflyinghawkmoth"oralsoasthe"predictedmoth".Itisoneofthemost famousexamplesofcoevolu7onbetweenplantsandinsects.
Belowandright: TheorchidAnagraecum sesquipedale with12inchlongnectarspurs Above: Xanthopanmorganiipraedictaapproximatelylife size WhatisScience? Lookingattheworldinasystema7cwayin ordertounderstanditusingthe Scien2ficMethod. Scientific Process/Method Observation looking in a way to understand Hypothesis a testable statement that explains the observation Experiment a test of the hypothesis using a control for comparison of results Conclusion a summary of results (hypothesis correct or incorrect) based on the experimental results Publish making results available to the world Answerable "how", "where", "when", "who", "what" questions Unanswerable "why" questions Answerable
How do mountains form? What makes a tomato red? How do clouds form? Where does rainwater end up? Unanswerable
Why are we here? Why is my friend a Republican? Was the course of evolution directed by a supernatural being? Answerable often can be tested by the scientific method Unanswerable usually not able to be tested by the scientific method idea or proposition that can be tested by observations or experiments about the natural world hypotheses are subject to scientific evaluation and must be falsifiable. A hypothesis can never be proven. It can be CONFIRMED (supported) or it can be FALSIFIED (rejected). ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course ENT 205 taught by Professor Bird during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.
- Fall '08