Science_and_matter_6_page - soybean summer fall winter...

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10/5/11 1 fall summer spring winter Over- wintering host ( Rhamnus ) soybean Parthenogenesis Reproduc2on without fer2liza2on All aphids in a summer colony are FEMALE ‐‐‐‐‐ NO MALES NO MATING Live birth No egg development 2me. Babies Babies feed within hours. Telescoping of genera2ons Aphids are born ‘pregnant Grandmothers contain their daughters & granddaughters . Polymorphism Different body types for different jobs Alate adult = winged = dispersal Apterous adult = non‐winged = make babies
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10/5/11 2 QUEEN DRONE DRONE SUBFAMILY SUBFAMILY ~20% of animal species are haplodiploid. Unfer:lized eggs (n) will develop as male. Drones are haploid clones of the queen. Fer:lized eggs (2n) will become female. Queens or workers, depending on the diet Sex determina:on in honey bees ( Haplodiploidy ) Queen Drone Unfertilized eggs (n) Fertilized eggs (2n) (2n) (n) Coevolu:on • The process by which two different organisms evolve together. • Insects and Flowering Plants • Fossil Record – Simultaneous Burst of Diversity with the Evolu:on of Angiosperms Darwin’s Orchid and the predicted moth In 1862, Charles Darwin was studying the orchid species Anagraecum sesquipedale , now commonly known as Darwin’s orchid , the comet orchid, the Christmas orchid or the Star of Bethlehem orchid, which is found only in Madagascar. One of its unique characteris:cs is a flower spur, the tube which contains nectar at the bo^om, that is over 12 inches long. Darwin predicted that only an insect with a tongue of 12‐13 inches would be able to reach the nectar and pollinate the orchid, and that such an insect must exist for the structure to have evolved on the orchid. Many people thought Darwin was crazy because no insect had ever been found with a tongue that long! The largest English sphinx moths had tongues that were only as long as their bodies, or around 4‐5”. A species of large hawkmoth widespread in Africa, Xanthopan morganii , was known to have a proboscis 7.5 inches long but even that was not long enough. Darwin died in 1882, never knowing whether his predic:on was true or not. However, in 1903, a subspecies of Xanthopan morganii was found in Madagascar that did indeed have a proboscis over 12 inches long. It was given the scien:fic name Xanthopan morganii praedicta (Rothschild & Jordan) and is commonly called the “long‐tongued night‐flying hawk moth” or also as the “ predicted moth ”. It is one of the most famous examples of co‐evolu:on between plants and insects.
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