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Unformatted text preview: 10/5/11 soybean summer fall winter Overwintering host (Rhamnus) spring Reproduc2onwithoutfer2liza2on Allaphidsina summercolony areFEMALE NOMALES NOMATING Parthenogenesis Livebirth
Babies Noegg development2me. Babies feed within hours. Telescopingofgenera2ons
Grandmothers containtheir daughters& granddaughters. Differentbodytypesfordifferentjobs
Alateadult =winged =dispersal Polymorphism Apterousadult =nonwinged =makebabies 1 10/5/11 DRONE QUEEN DRONE SUBFAMILY SUBFAMILY Sexdetermina:oninhoneybees
(2n) Queen Coevolu:on Theprocessbywhichtwodifferentorganisms evolvetogether. InsectsandFloweringPlants FossilRecordSimultaneousBurstofDiversity withtheEvolu:onofAngiosperms ~20%ofanimalspecies arehaplodiploid. Unfer:lizedeggs(n)will developasmale.
Dronesarehaploidclonesofthe queen. (n) Drone Fer:lizedeggs(2n)will becomefemale. Queensorworkers,dependingon thediet Unfertilized eggs (n) Fertilized eggs (2n) Darwin'sOrchidandthepredictedmoth
In1862,CharlesDarwinwasstudyingtheorchidspeciesAnagraecumsesquipedale,now commonlyknownasDarwin'sorchid,thecometorchid,theChristmasorchidortheStarof Bethlehemorchid,whichisfoundonlyinMadagascar.Oneofitsuniquecharacteris:csisa flowerspur,thetubewhichcontainsnectaratthebo^om,thatisover12incheslong.Darwin predictedthatonlyaninsectwithatongueof1213incheswouldbeabletoreachthenectar andpollinatetheorchid,andthatsuchaninsectmustexistforthestructuretohaveevolved ontheorchid.ManypeoplethoughtDarwinwascrazybecausenoinsecthadeverbeenfound withatonguethatlong!ThelargestEnglishsphinxmothshadtonguesthatwereonlyaslong astheirbodies,oraround45".AspeciesoflargehawkmothwidespreadinAfrica,Xanthopan morganii,wasknowntohaveaproboscis7.5incheslongbuteventhatwasnotlongenough. Darwindiedin1882,neverknowingwhetherhispredic:onwastrueornot.However,in 1903,asubspeciesofXanthopanmorganii wasfoundinMadagascarthatdidindeedhave aproboscisover12incheslong.Itwasgiven thescien:ficnameXanthopanmorganiipraedicta (Rothschild&Jordan)andiscommonlycalledthe "longtonguednightflyinghawkmoth"oralsoasthe"predictedmoth".Itisoneofthemost famousexamplesofcoevolu:onbetweenplantsandinsects.
Belowandright: TheorchidAnagraecum sesquipedale with12inchlongnectarspurs WhatisScience? Lookingattheworldinasystema:cwayin ordertounderstanditusingthe Scien2ficMethod. Above: Xanthopanmorganiipraedictaapproximatelylife size 2 10/5/11 Scientific Process/Method Observation looking in a way to understand Hypothesis a testable statement that explains the observation Experiment a test of the hypothesis using a control for comparison of results Conclusion a summary of results (hypothesis correct or incorrect) based on the experimental results Publish making results available to the world Answerable "how", "where", "when", "who", "what" questions Unanswerable "why" questions Answerable
How do mountains form? What makes a tomato red? How do clouds form? Where does rainwater end up? Unanswerable
Why are we here? Why is my friend a Republican? Was the course of evolution directed by a supernatural being? Answerable often can be tested by the scientific method Unanswerable usually not able to be tested by the scientific method Observation Null Hypothesis (Ho): hypothesis to be tested anticipates no effect or difference between/ among test groups Question idea or proposition that can be tested by observations or experiments about the natural world hypotheses are subject to scientific evaluation and must be falsifiable. A hypothesis can never be proven. It can be CONFIRMED (supported) or it can be FALSIFIED (rejected). Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 5 Ho: wing length does not differ among dragonfly populations Potential Hypotheses Pop. A Pop. B Pop. C 3 10/5/11 Observation Alternative Hypothesis(es) (HA): hypothesis to be tested after null hypothesis is rejected must predict the difference between/among test groups Observation Reject Hypotheses 1&4 Experiment Question Question Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 5 HA: wing length in dragonfly population A is greater than that of populations B and C Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 5
Potential Hypotheses Reject Hypotheses 2&3 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 5
Remaining Potential Hypotheses Experiment Potential Hypotheses Hypothesis 5 Predictions Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 Pop. A Pop. B Pop. C Predictions Confirmed CanHypothesesbeProvenTrue?
RuleofFalsifica2on Observa:onscansupporthypotheses Observa:onstothecontrarycandisproveor Falsify Purevs.AppliedScience PureScienceResearchdonesimplytoanswer atheore:calques:on. AppliedSciencetheuseofknowledgegained frompurescienceforsomefunc:onalpurpose. Anything that has mass (the amount of material in an object) and takes up space. Element - A substance composed of one type of atom. (There are 92 naturally existing elements.) Atom - The smallest particle of an element that retains all properties of that element.
All matter (gases, liquids, and solids) is made up of atoms. 4 10/5/11 Earth Biosphere Ingredients (by weight): 98.5%: Oxygen (65%), Carbon (18%), Hydrogen (10%), Nitrogen (3%), Calcium (1.5%), Phosphorus (1.0%), 1.5%: Potassium (0.35%), Sulfur (0.25%), Sodium (0.15%), Magnesium (0.05%), Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70%), Trace amounts: Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine Tissues Cells Cell Organelles Molecules/Compounds Atoms/Elements Sub-atomic particles Ecosystems Communities Populations Organism Organ Systems Organs Consistoftworegions:interiornucleus&outerelectrons Nucleus Protons + 1 net charge 1 mass unit
P 1 Proton Neutrons 0 Neutron 1 Mass Unit no net charge
Electrons 1 mass unit - 1 net charge no mass N P N P 2 Protons 2 Neutrons 4 Mass Units P N 3 Protons 4 Neutrons 7 Mass Units 5 10/5/11 All matter consists of tiny moving particles called molecules, which are made up of different groupings of atoms.
Molecules formed when 2 or more atoms join together chemically *i.e., transferring or sharing electrons H H Hydrogen (H2) O H H Water (H2O) matter Compounds: molecules that contain at least 2 different elements Tablesalt (NaCl) Na+ Cl- ChemicalBonds Compoundsubstancecomposedofdifferent kindsofatoms Molecule:twoormoreatomsjoinedtogether ChemicalBondforces(chemicalenergy)holding atomstogetherinmolecules IonicAtomswithoppositecharges(ions)forma bonde.g.Na+andCl. Covalentatomsshareelectrons(butnotalways equally).Forexample,inwatertheoxygena^racts theelectronsmorestronglythanthehydrogens do,sothehydrogenshaveaslightposi:vecharge andtheoxygenaslightnega:vecharge. CommonMolecules Oxida:onandReduc:on Whenanatomgivesuponeormoreelectrons,itis oxidized. Whenanatomgainselectrons,itisreduced. Oxida:onandreduc:onareanimportantpartof howorganismsgainenergyfromfood. Formingbondsusesenergy;breakingbondsreleases energy. Ac:va:onenergyisorenneededtobeginareac:on (e.g.matchneededtostartafire). Ions,Acids,andBases Ionsatomsthatcontainmoreorfewerelectrons thanprotonsandthereforehaveaposi:veor nega:vecharge Anionshaveanega:vecharge. Ca:onshaveaposi:vecharge. Acidssubstancesthatreleasehydrogenionsinwater Basessubstancesthatreadilybondwithhydrogen ions pHscale:logarithmic;eachstepis10X 0to7isacidic/7isneutral/8to14isbasic 6 10/5/11 pHScale
Inorganic Organic: C-C and C-H bonds O C O H Carbon dioxide (CO2) C H H Methane (CH4) H Na+
ClTable salt (NaCl) Glucose (C6H12O6)
Gasoline OrganicCompounds OrganicCompoundsMaterialmakingup biomolecules,whichinturnmakeuplivingthings. Allorganiccompoundscontaincarbon. Fourmajorcategoriesoforganiccompounds: Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins NucleicAcids Complex carbohydrates (fructose) Proteins DNA & RNA Measure of usefulness of matter Based on availability & concentration It takes less energy, H2O, and money to recycle an aluminum can v. making a new one from scratch! 7 10/5/11 Material Efficiency (= resource productivity): the total amount of a material needed to produce each unit of goods or services. In any physical or chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed, but changed from one form to another. Before 5 cans/lump Aluminum ore After 20 cans/lump
Physical change Chemical change Can be improved with technology or new resources. When matter undergoes a chemical change, the chemical composition changes.
Hydrocarbon matter (e.g., coal, gas, wood) When matter undergoes a physical change, the chemical composition stays the same. + oxygen Water (H2O) Ice (H2O) Carbon dioxide + energy Energy:
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another. the work needed to move matter (kinetic energy) the heat that flows from warmer to cooler samples of matter. Energy input = Energy output 8 10/5/11 Potential & Kinetic
STORED ENERGY MOVING ENERGY When energy is changed from one form to another, some of the useful energy is always degraded to lower quality, more dispersed, and consequently, less useful energy. You cannot reuse or recycle energy! 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course ENT 205 taught by Professor Bird during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.
- Fall '08