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September 1, 2011 Physics for Scientists & Engineers 2, Chapter 21 1 Please register your iClicker at http://www.iclicker.com/support/ registeryourclicker/ Include the A when you enter your student ID!
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September 1, 2011 Physics for Scientists&Engineers 2 2 Electricity and Magnetism Electricity and magnetism: known for thousands of years e ancient Greeks knew that a piece of amber rubbed with fur would attract small, light objects e word for electron and electricity derived from the Greek word for amber Naturally occurring magnetic materials called lodestones were used as early as 300 BC to construct compasses e relationship between electricity and magnetism was not known until the middle of the 19 th century
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September 1, 2011 Physics for Scientists&Engineers 2 3 The Fundamental Forces Range: Infinite Infinite 10 -18 m 0.1% of the diameter of a proton 10 -15 m diameter of medium-sized nucleus
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September 1, 2011 Physics for Scientists & Engineers 2, Chapter 21 4 Gravitational and Electric Forces For gravity we de±ned a gravitational force and a gravitational potential We will do the same for the electric force and the electric potential We will introduce the concept of an electric ±eld to help us understand the electromagnetic force F ( r ) = G m 1 m 2 r 2 U ( r ) = G m 1 m 2 r
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September 1, 2011 Physics for Scientists & Engineers 2, Chapter 21 5 Electric Charge Everyday example: When walking on a carpet on a dry winter’s day and then touching a door knob, one oen experiences a spark is process is called charging Charging: negatively charged electrons move from the atoms and molecules of the carpet to the soles of our shoes, to the body A spark occurs when the built-up charge discharges through the metal of the door knob. Similar phenomenon involving wind, rain and ice produces lightning
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September 1, 2011 Physics for Scientists & Engineers 2, Chapter 21 6 Electric Charge Normally objects around us do not seem to carry a net charge ey have equal amounts of positive and negative charge
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