19065653-Reliability-for-Begineers

19065653-Reliability-for-Begineers - Contents 1....

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Contents 1. RELIABILITY MATHEMATICS 1 1.1. A Brief Introduction to Probability Theory and Statistics 1 1.1.1. Basic Definitions 1 1.1.2. Probability Properties, Theorems and Axioms 2 1.1.2.1. Mutually Exclusive Events 2 1.1.2.2. Conditional Probability 2 1.1.2.3. Independent Events 2 1.1.3. Random Variable 3 1.2. The Probability and Cumulative Density (Distribution) Functions 3 1.2.1. Designations 3 1.2.2. Definition 4 1.2.3. Mathematical Relationship Between the pdf and cdf 5 1.2.4. Mean Life (MTTF) 5 1.2.5. Median Life 5 1.2.6. Modal Life 6 1.3. Statistical Distributions used in Reliability Analysis 6 1.3.1. Exponential Distribution 8 1.3.2. The Normal Distribution 10 1.3.3. The Log-Normal Distribution 13 1.3.4. The Weibull Distribution 15 2. BURN IN 21 2.1. Introduction 21 2.1.1. Burn-In Definitions 21 2.1.2. The Differences between Burn-In and Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) 22 2.2. Burn-In Methods and Their Effectiveness 22 2.2.1. Static Burn-In 22 2.2.2. Dynamic Burn-in 23 2.2.3. Test During Burn-In 23 2.2.4. High-Voltage Stress Tests 24 2.3. Burn-In Documents 26 2.4. Burn-In Test Conditions Specified By MIL-STD-883C 26 2.5. Test Temperature 29 2.6. Reliability after Burn-In 30 2.6.1. Residual MTTF 32 2.7. A Physics of Failure Approach to IC Burn-In 32 2.7.1. Burn-In Philosophy 33 2.7.2. Problem with Present Approach to Burn-In 33 2.7.3. A Physics- Of – Failure Approach to Burn –In 38 2.7.3.1. Understanding Steady –State Temperature Effects 38 2.7.3.2. Setting up the Burn-in Profile 39
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ii 3. RELIABILITY EVALUATION USING DATABOOKS 43 3.1. MIL-HDBK-217 vs. HALT/HASS 43 3.1.1. The Purpose of MIL-HDBK-217 43 3.1.2. The Merit of HALT/HASS 44 3.1.3. Why MIL-HDBK-217 Turns Out Inaccurate Predictions 46 3.1.4. Conclusion 47 3.1.5. References 48 3.2. A New System-Reliability Assessment Methodology 49 3.2.1. Abstract 49 3.2.2. Background 50 3.2.2.1. Need for the Model 50 3.2.2.2. Uses for Reliability Predictions 51 3.2.2.3. Methodologies Used In Performing Predictions 51 3.2.3. The Basis for a New Model 53 3.2.3.1. Uncertainty in Traditional Approach Estimates 53 3.2.3.2. System Failure Causes 54 3.2.3.3. Model Description 55 3.2.3.4. Initial Assessment 58 3.2.3.5. Process Grading 58 3.2.3.6. Adding Software Failure Rate 59 3.2.3.7. Adding Failure Rate Due to Wearout Modes 62 3.2.3.8. Logistic Failure Rate Contributions 62 3.2.3.9. Adding Empirical Data 63 3.2.4. Future Plans 64 3.2.5. References 64 4. RELIABILITY DESIGN IMPROVEMENT METHODS 67 4.1. Introduction 67 4.2. Derating 67 4.2.1. Importance of Derating 67 4.2.2. Effect of Derating On Part Stress Reliability Prediction 68 4.2.3. Method of Derating 68 4.3. Redundancy 69 4.3.1. Active Parallel Redundancy 69 4.3.2. Standby Redundancy 70 4.3.3. K-out-of-M Redundancy 70 4.4. Stress Reduction 71 4.4.1.1. Reliability Growth Testing 72 4.4.2. Duane Model 72 4.5. Cumulative MTBF 74 4.5.1. Alternate Duane Plot 74 4.5.2. Limitations 74 5. COST ANALYSIS 77 5.1. Life Cycle Cost Analysis 77 5.1.1. The Economics of Reliability and Maintainability and System Design 79 5.1.2. Life-Cycle Cost Model 81 5.2. Warranty Cost Analysis 84
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iii 6. ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING DATA ANALYSIS 87 6.1. Introduction 87 6.2. Data and Data Types 89 6.2.1. Complete Data 89 6.2.2. Censored Data 89 6.2.2.1. Censored Type I Data 90 6.2.2.2. Censored Type II Data 90 6.2.2.3. Multi-censored Data 91 6.3.
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course ENGR 202 taught by Professor Hi during the Spring '11 term at UCLA.

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19065653-Reliability-for-Begineers - Contents 1....

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