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F11Anth110-Lec02 - archaeology scientific method...

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Unformatted text preview: archaeology scientific method archaeology explanation l ti explanation of (past) human behavior using physical remains exploitation of human past for personal gain antiquarianism critical thinking = consider alternatives observation, hypothesis, theory th of ( t) h f (past) human behavior using b h i i physical remains emphasis on "how" and "why" how" why" physical remains observation historical science explanation: explanation: culture explanatory foundations and adaptation modern archaeology Culture history Processual archaeology Post-Processual archaeology Post questions ti How? = Why? h Lyell' Lyell's Old Earth Boucher de Perthes Darwin Thomsen & Worsaae Tylor & Morgan social Darwinism PROXIMATE CAUSES behavioral archaeology = ULTIMATE CAUSES the four strategies 1 2 Kershaw' Kershaw's Sick Slider arctic vs. tropical technological complexity HOW and WHY? 3 4 archaeology explanation portable technology abiotic remains of (past) human behavior using physical remains = OBSERVABLE ACTION physical remains of behavior biotic bi i remains i Behavior largely unique among contemporary social sciences non-portable technology 5 6 antiquarianism antiquarianism exploitation of physical remains of (past) human behavior for personal gain ... is also alive and well ... not irrelevant The Elgin Marbles at the British g Museum. Plundered from the Parthenon in 1803. Annually 5.5 million people see the Elgin Marbles! Imagine if each person spent only $1 in the museum... our antiquarians heroes 7 8 antiquarianism line between antiquarianism and legitimate archaeology is fuzzy from antiquarianism to archaeology? The Elgin Marbles at the British Museum. Plundered from the Parthenon in 1803. Annually 5.5 million people see the 1803 55 Elgin Marbles! Imagine if each person spent only $1 in the museum... a "backward-looking curiosity" backwardcuriosity" natural human interest in origins and ancestors past is knowable, the future is uncertain... 9 10 modern today's first deep theoretical statement th ti l t t t archaeology emerges when the physical remains are seen as a basis for explaining what will happen in the future (or between two points in time) Time 1 Time 2 Today 2000 BC Tomorrow 1000 BC Thanks Al...! 11 12 Archbishop James Usher's (1581-1656) "Young Earth" provided no time for human history id d ti f h hi t to be considered "changeable" If nothing changes there is no need to predict the future. Charles Lyell' Lyell's "Old Earth" Earth" Sir Charles Lyell 1797-1875 Uniformitarianism = processes that observe in the present also operated in the past 14 enough time for change Genesis Chapter 11 13 Jacques Boucher de Perthes (1788-1868) (1788- regular The changes in human life-ways? lifeJurgensen Thomsen (1786 1865) "Three Age System": Stone Bronze Iron System" stone implements with the bones of extinct animals proof that humans were also part of the "Old Earth" Earth" time for life-ways to have changed dramatically life- y g y Christian Jens Worsaae (1821-1885) (1821- tested "Three Age System" System" "Three Age System" was applicable on a very broad System" scale successfully Charles Knight's 1914 reconstruction of Neanderthal life at Le Moustier rock shelter Jacques Boucher de Perthes' drawings of the Somme River gravels, France 15 16 why did human societies change in similar ways in different places? a common mechanism Charles Darwin (1809-1882) (1809 Early modern archaeology conflated notion of change with progress Spencer (1820-1903) (1820- Herbert "survival of the fittest" fittest" roots of "Social Darwinism" Darwinism" Lewis The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) genetics, culture and behavior are systems that are naturally designed to change so as to c e se e y d educe increase fertility and reduce mortality Henry Morgan (1818-1881) & (1818Edward B. Tylor (1832-1917) (1832classify techno-social-ideological-moral systems techno-social-ideologicalinto stages Spencer Charles Darwin in 1880 savagery barbarism civilization 17 attempting explanation though they were wrong!!! 18 recap to this point Lyell Boucher enough time for change enough time for change in human lifelife-ways a sequence of changes in technology Science as one route to sound explanation general sense = "k l knowledge acquired by l d i db science, i study" study" science, specific sense = "th acquisition and science, i ifi the i iti d organization of knowledge through observation, observation, hypothesis testing, and theory building" building" testing, science is a METHOD Thomsen & Worsaae Darwin g "how" change occurs how" Spencer-Tylor Morgan Spencer-T l -M S Tylor- "why" h h human cultures have changed lt h h d 19 20 Theory/Model = a summary of the patterns and regularities of behavior d l ii fb h i Scientific Method Theory/Model DEDUCTIVE a law-like statement law- Hypothesis = a set of p yp predictions that should hold true if a model/theory is an accurate p y description of reality Observation/Test = information (data) collected with the aim of assessing the validity of an hypothesis 21 Revision/Organization Hypotheses INDUCTIVE Test/Observation 22 archaeology is a historical science archaeology only one chance to excavate a site and collect data! critical thinking = consider multiple alternatives "heart" of archaeological theory-building is to use "multiple heart" g theoryy g p working hypotheses" hypotheses" model 1 d l hypotheses 1 h h Reject 1 & 2 explanation of (past) human behavior using physical remains (p )? (past)? ( ) 23 24 model 2 hypotheses 2 OBSERVATION provisionally accept 3 model 3 hypotheses 3 Behavioral Archaeology Material Objects The Garbage Project Past P Present P H Human Behavior Past traditional archaeology ethnoethnoarchaeology; postpost-processual Established in 1973 in Tucson, AZ Examine American E i A i behavior through their garbage Followed up with survey of households Findings... Fi di Present modern processual; material culture postpost-processual studies 25 people often lie about how much booze they drink 1973 beef "shortage" led shortage" to runs on supermarkets; most was eventually thrown away unused h d 26 Readings for Week 1 g TODAY: R&B Chapter 1 (your job to master pp. 29-50) Ch t ( j bt t 29 Reid et al. (on class website) Next Class: R&B Chapter 2 After that...: Waters; R&B Chapter 2, cont. 27 ...
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