Unformatted text preview: surface/subsurface relationship representativeness: disturbance subsurface testing (remote sensing) depth, color, texture, thickness, contents (artifacts/ecofacts), contacts, distance pros and cons of survey strategies of excavation nonnon-intrusive v. intrusive goals of excavation provenience & association; primary context matrix: x, y, z dimensions total coverage v. sample research problem penetrating excavations why do survey? focus on z-dimension zsondage, test pit sondage area excavations & balks test pits to establish stratigraphy p g p y combination of penetrating & clearing surface materials provide better spatial perspective than sub-surface materials subsurface materials often lack good temporal control and are often not representative d f i synchronic & diachronic control clearing excavations why d 't we only do survey? h don don' l d single v. multi-component sites multi stratification trenching law of superposition & depositional sequence stratum, strata, stratigraphy Harris matrix correlation & master sequences q cultural stratigraphy anthropogenic, natural layer, cultural level, overburden, sterile, arbitrary levels maintaining control: x, y and z
1 2 surface/subsurface/sub-surface relationship comparing surface & sub-surface remains sub do what l d archaeological materials to be visible at h leads h l i l i l b i ibl the surface?
they were never buried they were buried, but have been exhumed/exposed sub-surface materials are linked to clear surficial traces sub they coincide spatially/temporally? do they coincide compositionally? y p y 3 4 detecting sub-surface materials (remote sensing) sub ground penetrating radar non-intrusive techniques non-i i h i magnetometer detects how subsurface remains locally alter the characteristics of the Earth's magnetic field Earth' works well on flat surfaces k ll fl f
5 6 GPR: detecting changes in sediment texture below the surface where can I get me one of them things? g
Anomaly Resolution is key! ground truthing "ground truthing" Anomaly Anomalies A li Anomalies "ground truthing"
7 8 detecting sub-surface materials sub non-intrusive techniques non-i i h i resistivity and conductivity of electrical waves responsive to major changes in water content of soils archaeological features (e.g., compacted soils, plaster floors, stone walls) tend to change water content 9 10 detecting sub-surface materials sub detecting sub-surface materials sub coring and augering (exploratory) i d i ( l )
examine the sequence and depth of strata identify presence of anthropogenic deposits (e g highly (e.g., organic soils); small artifacts sondage and test pits d d i used to assess the complexity of sub-surface deposits or subprovide a larger sample of materials 11 12 goals of excavation Provenience: x,y-dimensions v. z-dimension x,yz locate physical remains in primary context l h i l i i i fundamental differences f d l diff
time ...sub...sub-surface remains may be less disturbed provenience (x, y, z coordinates) i ( di t ) associations between different physical remains z
space p f i i ti li ht i ... more t types of remains & associations more enlightening x y 13 14 today's first deep theoretical statement th ti l t t t material objects distributed through sediment column are diachronically related ("snapshots" through time) material objects distributed on plane are synchronically related (a "snapshot" of a system at one point in time) 15 16 single component vs. multi-component site multi single component i l multimulti-component (diachronic meaning)
z dimension contains more than one coherent occupation; multiple artifact-featureartifact-feature-ecofact associations represented i ti t d at different points in time repeated occupation of a location by mobile foragers, agriculturalists, foragers agriculturalists industrialists x, y and/or z dimensions contain only one coherent occupation multi component site (synchronic meaning)
x, y dimension contains more than one coherent occupation there is more than one set of artifact-feature-ecofact artifact-featureassociations corresponding to different systems operating at the same point in time stratigraphy at tell Madaba, Jordan
17 18 strategies always of excavation penetrating excavations (z-dimension) (z a sample problem oriented research bl i t d h sampling limited spatial extent, concentration is on excavation depth design must correspond to your research problem Crepeele, Manitoba, ca. 3500 BP
19 20 clearing excavations (x- and y-dimensions) (xyextensive spatial extent, limited depth establish depth and general stratigraphy first clearing excavations (x- and y-dimensions) (xy excavation balks record "local" features; correlated complex deposits local" 21 22 getting x, y and z dimensions (a little of each) stratigraphy!!! trenching 23 24 cultural, natural and arbitrary layers/levels Discrete Cultural Levels
depth anthropogenic layer = a sedimentary unit that was th i l di t it th t formed primarily as a result of human behavior e.g., agricultural terrace, midden, plaster floor, wall natural layer = ...non-human depositional processes y ...nonp p e.g., alluvial gravels, lake beach, sand dune cultural level = sediments that contain archaeological materials
distribution f h l i l di t ib ti of archaeological remains in z-di i i z-dimension i should be discrete from overlying and underlying cultural levels may OR may not correspond to natural layers 25 26 Discrete Cultural Levels or Level?
depth Cultural level may not correspond to natural layers
depth 27 28 Overburden and Sterile Layers
depth overburden layer = a sedimentary unit deposited by a common process arbitrary level = an excavation unit of set thickness 29 30 layer = a sedimentary unit deposited by a common process arbitrary level = an excavation unit of set thickness using arbitrary levels to control x, y and z in thick natural layers 31 32 ...
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- Spring '07
- Archaeology, sub-surface materials, sub-surface materials sub