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Unformatted text preview: natural & social environments environmental determinism v. coupled systems reconstructing environments microfauna & macrofauna coprolites & isotopes immediate & landscape catchments human- difi d human-modified: h decreasing material visibility
IDEATIONAL Binford's Pyramid environmental archaeology i t l h l chronology; abiotic (climate & geomorphology); biotic (flora & fauna) temporaltemporal-spatial scales ocean; isotopic; terrestrial subsistence ("food quest") meals v. diet identify, q y, quantify & interpret y p measures site formation processes floral remains SOCIAL global- l global-scale l b l microbotany & macrobotany other lines of eivdence macro and microfauna seasonality & domestication stomach contents; coprolites; h li disease; isotopes
1 2 landscapelandscape-scale faunal remains glacial; fresh water; sediments & soils; tree rings TECHNOLOGICAL floral: archaeobotany human remains microbotany & macrobotany faunal: zooarchaeology environmental determinism two observations about environments natural the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines the form of culture and the direction of culture change and social environments
is largely a matter of convenience distinction environments fluctuations uctuat o s have not been constant in both occur on a variety of time scales bot occu o va ety o t e sca es 3 4 local p past human system y environmental system y
climate abiotic environment lat-long, landform global
climate processes earth surface processes present human system environmental system plants ecological processes animals future human system environmental system
5 cultural processes
6 reconstructing environments reconstructing environments environmental archaeology =
views h i humans as part of the natural world, interacting with f h l ld i i ih other species and abiotic realm in an ecological system cannot understand human behavior without understanding the environment (and ecology) i l hf environmental arch focus on landscape the temporal-spatial scale at temporalwhich humans interact with the environment prior to environmental archaeology "ecofacts" largely "ecofacts" ignored, or only considered relevant within the context of a site =
8 Ecofact: Ecofact: nonartifactual evidence that has cultural relevance 7 reconstructing environments landscape archaeology = a practical p consideration reconstructing environments: overview abiotic environments: need to know di ib i of bi i i d k distribution f basic conditions (e.g., temperature, precipitation) explanation of the interactions of l i f h i i f people in the wider (typically regional) social and natural g ) environment they inhabited... using physical remains e.g., e g cannot farm if there is not enough rain, cannot cross the rain Bering Lang Bridge if it is too warm floral communities: need to know what plants humans o a communities: eed o ow w a p a s u a s co u es es: may have been interacting with GIS methods to some (UK) e.g., cannot domesticate barley if its wild progenitor does not exist in your environment Note: landscape = landscapes of power to some archaeologists (Northeastern g ( US)
9 faunal communities: need to know what animals communities: humans may h h have been interacting with b i t ti ith e.g., chance that a bone assemblage was accumulated by a hyena depends on knowing animals on landscape
10 globalglobal-scale climate change
major innovations in human culture correlate with j i i i h l l ih glacialglacial-interglacial shifts climate has fluctuated between cold glacial stages and li t h fl t t d b t ld l i l t d warm interglacial stages every 100ka for the last 2.5ma oxygen isotopes 18O/16O glacial period about 5C colder on average than today 5 why? change in shape of Earth's orbit around Sun how do we know this?
18O: 16O O:
11 8p, 10n 8 8 8p, 8n 18O 16O 18O 16O ENRICHED relative to = Glacial DEPLETED relative to = Interglacial MIS or OIS Cold Glacials labeled with EVEN numbers Warm Interglacials labeled with ODD numbers terrestrial global records landscape reconstruction
goal: to provide the most detailed reconstruction l id h d il d i possible of the regional area in which humans lived measures of abiotic conditions (examples only) f bi ti diti ( l l ) iceice-cores (e.g., GISP2) periglacial varves speleothems (stactites & stalagmites) loessloess-paleosol sequences (e.g., China) (e g soils: soils: soils form when conditions are warm and wet enough to support vegetation, which creates a stable land surface S2 = MIS 5 S3 = MIS 7
15 organic content mineral content isotopic content thickness texture 16 reconstructing plant environment (archaeobotany) (archaeobotany)
goal: reconstruct vegetation that people may have l i h l h encountered at particular time and place b bonus: plants lie at bottom of food chain l t li t b tt ff d h i bummer: plants do not preserve as well as bone (why) methods: special methods such as flotation used in h d i l h d h fl i di recovery reconstructing plant environment (archaeobotany) macrobotanical remains b i l i roots, seeds, fruits, leaves, stems, branches, wood a 10,000 year old squash seed from Guil Naquitz, Oaxaca
17 18 microbotanical remains
pollen...the Sherman Tank of the plant world! ll h Sh T k f h l ld! phytoliths ("plant opals") diatoms (unicellular algae with silica cell walls) pulverized charcoal reconstructing animal environment (zooarchaeology) zooarchaeology) goal: reconstruct the animal communities that people may have encountered at a particular time and place y p p methods: taphonomy y study of the incorporation of biotic materials (particularly bone) into the geological record; transformational processes stained pollen on a slide 19 20 zooarchaeology basic approach to zooarchaeology microfaunal remains analysis of skeletal assemblages vertebrates: small mammals, birds, reptiles small mammals particularly espo s ve o c e c ge responsive to climate change age & sex profiles skeletal element representation condition of skeletal elements invertebrates: marine mollusks, worms, insects... macrofaunal remains mostly vertebrates: both mammals and birds usually the bulk of the zooarchaeological record
21 22 basic approach to zooarchaeology species counts for sites (very typical until 1980s) analysis of diversity natural & social environments environmental determinism v. coupled systems reconstructing environments microfauna & macrofauna coprolites & isotopes immediate & landscape catchments human- difi d human-modified: h environmental archaeology i t l h l how many types and relative counts of each type y yp yp chronology; abiotic (climate & geomorphology); biotic (flora & fauna) temporaltemporal-spatial scales ocean; isotopic; terrestrial subsistence ("food quest") meals v. diet identify, quantify & interpret y, q y p measures global- l global-scale l b l site formation processes floral remains microbotany & macrobotany other lines of eivdence macro and microfauna seasonality & domestication stomach contents; coprolites; h li disease; isotopes
24 landscapelandscape-scale faunal remains glacial; fresh water; sediments & soils; tree rings floral: archaeobotany human remains microbotany & macrobotany 23 faunal: zooarchaeology p past human system y environmental system y reconstructing the human environment all human groups have an impact on their environment ll h h i h i i The site and its location are the most basic features of the human environment
site placement & resources it l t site placement for non-empirical reasons non present human system environmental system future human system environmental system 25 26 modification features of IMMEDIATE environment modification gardens & sites ONLY (?) minimal vs. extensive
e.g., controlled use of fire vs. quarries g, q e.g., modifications to natural shelters (caves) vs. fortifications (caves) of wider environment (land management)
and field systems irrigation works boundary walls pollution of air, soil and water management of woodland and vegetation Inuit whale bone house 27 28 site catchment = the total area from which the a site's contents have h l f hi h h i ' h been derived
your household s catchment is effectively global household's a small hunter gather camp may have a catchment with a radius of 10-20 km 10 reconstruction of catchment areas based on sourcing of materials i f i l identify the geological sources of where stone or clay raw materials have come from distance of transport p x-ray flourescence characterization of Olmec & geological bitumen 29 30 natural & social environments environmental determinism v. coupled systems reconstructing environments microfauna & macrofauna coprolites & isotopes immediate & landscape catchments human- difi d human-modified: h environmental archaeology i t l h l chronology; abiotic (climate & geomorphology); biotic (flora & fauna) temporaltemporal-spatial scales ocean; isotopic; terrestrial subsistence ("food quest") meals v. diet identify, quantify & interpret y, q y p measures site formation processes floral remains global- l global-scale l b l microbotany & macrobotany other lines of eivdence macro and microfauna seasonality & domestication stomach contents; coprolites; h li disease; isotopes
32 landscapelandscape-scale faunal remains glacial; fresh water; sediments & soils; tree rings floral: archaeobotany human remains microbotany & macrobotany 31 faunal: zooarchaeology subsistence, meals and diets subsistence = the quest for food Battle Burger! analysis of strategies used to find, capture, extract, process, trade and consume foods usually many different ways to accomplish the "food quest", why were some strategies chosen and not others? meal = direct evidence of what people were eating at a particular time and place diet = the pattern of consumption over a period of time study of diets, provides information about... nutrition health "foodways" more than just health foodways"
33 socio-economic status... allez cuisine!
NO CHEFS WERE HARMED DURING MAKING OF THIS PROMOTIONAL VIDEO
34 evidence of meals F d & th Food the Social and Ideological Realms R l
status spirituality hi i l historical accounts depictions in various media preserved foodstuffs Otzi's last meal: venison and wheat from DNA in stomach f i h indirect evidence (that plants/animals were extracted/processed e tracted/processed for food) charred grain or seeds from cooking in an oven cutmarks on bone or burned bone food residues (lipids/proteins/DNA) in cooking or eating vessels and on tools stomach contents (in well-preserved remains) well36 direct evidence 35 direct evidence zooarchaeology coprolites ("f il d li ("fossil dung") ")
direct evidence of what an animal was eating evidence of body size! micro vs. macro fauna nonnon-food vs. food skeletal representation p coprolite of a Miocene (23-5 mya) herbivore competition & food preference diversity & evenness foraging beahavior 37 age & sex profiles
38 IDing wild animals: mortality profiles
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 sub-adult prime age old hunting prof ile 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 sub-adult prime age old IDing domesticates-domesticates-mortality profiles
domesticated male 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 domesticated f emale Easy to capture (but small, or low health) sub-adult prime age old evidence of diets sum to indirect evidence of diets of meals = diet? f d extraction technologies i h l i food
stone & metal projectiles stone & metal digging tools plant & animal fiber nets what extent do the food remains at a site represent the total diet of the inhabitants? things to consider? context, sample and preservation food processing technologies
stone tools grinding equipment g g q p boiling equipment g g food storage technologies
storage bags, gourds, pits & ceramic vessels drying & salting technology 41 42 isotopic studies bones (and many other materials) preserve isotopic "signatures" of foods eaten 13C/12C ratio in bone indicates whether individuals ate domesticated grasses (C4 plant) or other carbon sources not related to grasses (C3 plant, b l d (C l marine resources) in bone: used to assess "trophic level"; "trophic ratio tends to get higher the farther up the trophic p pyramid one is shift to diet based on C4 grass why 15N increase? 15N/14N 43 44 mesolithic to neolithic shift in Britain ca. 5200 14C BP evidence of diets bones and teeth malnutrition marine stature, rickets microscopic features abrasions and wear on teeth that indicate foods in diet tooth decay and loss
Neolithic mandible. Yikes! terrestrial protein
45 often associated with increase in starches and sugars in diet from the advent of f th d t f agriculture 46 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course ANTHRO 124P taught by Professor Fessler during the Spring '07 term at UCLA.
- Spring '07