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Midterm Two Study Guide

Midterm Two Study Guide - -Conservatism-equality of...

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Public Policy Midterm Two Study Guide Inequality Justified when: 1. everyone has a chance to get ahead 2. reflects individual choice 3. reflects merit 4. “benefits everyone” To get efficiency Inequality is needed for efficiency Equality provides disincentives Unequal contribution = unequal rewards? To get equality Unequal incomes lead to unequal opportunities Inequality = social unrest, political instability and social disengagement Too much = no economic growth Distributive Justice - members have rights to just wages and benefits - ignores efficiency - moral measure = how are the poor doing? Natural Law - individuals have rights to the products of their labor - inequality justified if process is fair - ignores inequality of opportunity Utilitarianism - government to maximize total benefit to everyone in society - based on marginal utility – move to equality - ignores efficiency Liberal Theory - maximize utility to worse-off in society
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Unformatted text preview: -Conservatism-equality of opportunity vs. equality of results-ensure “fair” process rather than (re) distribute rewards-problem: how do we know when “fair” is reached? Is inequality a problem? • Absolute: define a “hard” poverty line • Relative: define a “moving” poverty line What do we do? Social welfare programs (housing subsidies, food stamps, MediCare) C: politically controversial, moral hazard, can’t eliminate poverty Earned Income Tax Credit C: disincentive to work? Minimum wage, raise wage floor C: higher unemployement? Affirmative action? C: politically controversial, stigma, reserve discrimination, does it help those MOST in need? Crime-Recent decrease in criminal offenses-Rapid increase in incarceration and prison population-Prisoner re-entry into society Conservative: crime as genetic Conservataive/Liberal: rational decision-making...
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