Pollination Fruits Seeds and Seedlings Fall 2011

Pollination Fruits Seeds and Seedlings Fall 2011 -...

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Pollination
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Pollination • Transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma of the same or a different flower • Some species can self-pollinate • Most species rely on a biotic (living) or an abiotic (nonliving – wind, water) agent to move pollen from one plant to another • Plants must attract biotic pollinators
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Primary attractants • Satisfy a need of a pollinator - something needed for their own survival or survival of offspring • nectar, pollen, oil, shelter, resins and waxes, sexual attraction
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Slender Hammer Orchid
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Secondary Attractants • Advertise the presence of the primary attractants • Include perianth shape, color, odor
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Pollination Syndromes • Associations between flower characteristics and pollination agents • Products of convergent evolution • Flower color, shape, odor, time of opening; quantity, quality, time of availability of nectar and pollen can sometimes be used to predict the most effective pollination agent
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Fig. 38-4a Abiotic Pollination by Wind Hazel staminate flowers (stamens only) Hazel carpellate flower (carpels only) 20% of angiosperms
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Wind-pollinated flowers • Often in pendulous catkins • No petals • No odor • Inconspicuous colors • No nectar • Flowers usually unisexual; species are monoecious or dioecious • Pollen grains small and light Quercus sp.
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Wind-pollinated flowers, cont. Feathery stigmas Few ovules per flower Large amounts of pollen (much is wasted) Pollen:ovule ratio can be very high (2,500,000:1 in hazel) Usually temperate zone plants that occur in dense stands Many flower in the spring, before the leaves come out Bouteloua spp.
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Fig. 38-4b Pollination by Bees Common dandelion under normal light Common dandelion under ultraviolet light Bees are most important insect pollinators
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Bee-pollinated flowers Often bilateral symmetry Landing platform Often brightly-colored, blue, yellow; with UV- absorbing pigments Sometimes minty odor Hidden nectar Nectar guides Few stamens Much pollen, nectar Monarda citriodora Asclepias viridis Dalea purpurea
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Butterfly-pollinated flowers Radially symmetrical Long floral tube, sometimes a spur Erect flowers, with a flat rim for landing Hidden nectar Vivid colors, often red, yellow, orange Weak, generally sweet odor Moderate pollen Much nectar Asclepias tuberosa Cirsium undulatum Verbena sp.
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Moth-pollinated flowers Open in evening Radially symmetrical Long floral tube Horizontal or pendant; no landing platform Hidden nectar White or dull-colored Strong, sweet odor at night Copious nectar at night Yucca glauca Gaura spp.
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Fig. 38-4c Pollination by Moths and Butterflies Moth on yucca flower Anther Stigma
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Beetle-pollinated flowers • Flat to bowl-shaped
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2012 for the course BIO 1225 taught by Professor Caddell during the Fall '11 term at University of Central Oklahoma.

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Pollination Fruits Seeds and Seedlings Fall 2011 -...

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