Lecture 18, Heian Japan, 794-1185

Lecture 18, Heian Japan, 794-1185 - Heian Japan 794-1185...

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Heian Japan 794-1185 Court Aristocrats Transform the Chinese Model Revised, 11.06.11
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Heian Japan, 794-1185 Fujiwara family sessho, regent Fujiwara Michinaga, 966-1027 kuge, court aristocracy buke, provincial nobles Taira (Heiji) & Minamoto (Genji) – buke families w/ origins among court aristocracy Tale of the Heiki Emperor Ninjo & retired Emperor Go-Shirakawa 1156-1185, Crisis Era Taira Kiyomori Genpei Wars, 1180-1185 Prince Mochihito Minamoto Yoritomo, 1147-1199 Kanto Plain Buke opponents in central Japan called themselves Taira 1184, Battle of Ichinotani 1185, Battle of Dannoura Jito, military land steward Shugo, military governor (not important office until 14th century) Gokenin, permanent vassals of Minamoto lineage Sei-i-tai shogun, “barbarian quelling generalissimo”
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The Chinese Model or Ritsu-ryo system Centralized bureaucratic state Three tiers of bureaucracy A system of provinces, districts, and villages was to be established. Center would appoint “officials” to govern the three levels of the system. Public lands, no private lands Public lands were to be periodically redistributed.
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Ritsu-ryo system Periodic land surveys to determine productivity of the land. Lands taxed on basis of surveys. purpose of land system: enable the “centralizers” to intrude and extract the material and human resources of the islands. Militia system – abandoned in 9 th century when became apparent Chinese invasion threat had receded.
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From Ritsu-ryo to Kemmon Ritsu-ryo – 750-950 Courtiers and monks Modifications of Ritsu-ryo system Privatization of landholding system – creation of SHOEN Privatization of government – creation of MAN- DOKORO, a private bureaucracy. Purpose of mandokoro was to manage the proprieties of Heian courtiers. Need for armed retainers – origins of samurai in 9 th century (private power replaced public forces)
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Privatizers: courtiers and monks – first two pillars of the KEMMON system (KEMMON or KENMON means “gates of power”) Courtiers shared power with monastic complexes like the Todaiji in Nara. Note the presence of warriors, but as adjuncts to the courtiers and monks. Kemmon system in view by 1050.
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Imperial Family & Fujiwara Dominance Imperial house one of ca. 15-16 great lineages that lived in Heian-kyo (aka Kyoto). Imperial house headed bureaucratic or ritsu-ryo system. Beginning in the 9 th century, imperial line was dominated by another equally powerful family, the Fujiwara. Fujiwara intermarried w/ imperial line (Yamato). Maternal family raised child.
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Fujiwara Dominance Sessho – regent Kampaku – chancellor Fujiwara power reached its apex between 960 and 1050. Most powerful was Michinaga.
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Lecture 18, Heian Japan, 794-1185 - Heian Japan 794-1185...

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