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Lecture 22, Japan, Civil War to Unification, 1333-1600, revF11 (1)

Lecture 22, Japan, Civil War to Unification, 1333-1600, revF11 (1)

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Medieval Japan: From Civil War & Fragmentation to Unification & Peace 1333-1600
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Major Developments (1) Warriors asserted their dominance over KEMMON system 1185-1260s. (2) Mongol attacks, 1274 & 1281, initiated a period of crisis, lasting until 1333. (3) Important dimensions of post-Mongol invasion crisis: Hojo autocracy; increased factionalism at Kyoto court and w/n Kamakura bakufu; rise of akuto in Kinai (central Japan); unrest among cultivators.
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1333, Kamakura bakufu overturned by alliance of courtiers led by Emperor Go-Daigo and warrior houses led by Ashikaga Takauji. 1333-1336, Kemmu Restoration of Emperor Go- Daigo. Takauji overturns restoration & initiated effort to centralize power in Muromachi bakufu (in Kyoto), 1333-1568. Problems of asserting control in Kyushu & Kanto .
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Local warriors resist centralizing efforts of Muromachi bakufu. Another problem: civil between Northern and Southern courts, 1333-1392 over alternate succession, which opened way for warrior encroachment on estates of courtiers and monastic institutions. Emergence of daiymo , great lords
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Succession disputes in bakufu and two powerful shugo houses in 1460s Disputes led to Onin War, 1467-1477. Followed by a century of wars, called Sengoku Jidai – Warring States. Wars destroyed the ritsu-ryo and kemmon systems. Only imperial institution survived 1477-1600, Daimyo asserted their dominance, thus completing trend towards local autonomy underway since 11 th century
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1560s-1650s, Century of political and institutional creativity, From shoen to mura – peasants as revolutionary force; first to create ikki – defense leagues.
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Daimyo posed as peasantry’s protector.
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