Lecture 23, Ming & Mongols, rev2

Lecture 23, Ming & Mongols, rev2 - Ming &...

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Ming & Mongols
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Ming and Mongols, 15 th th centuries I. End of Mongol Empire in China II. The Rise of Zhu Di (Yongle emperor) III. Zhu Di Military Campaigns against the Mongols IV. Analysis of Zhu Di’s Campaigns V. Towards Tumu Incident 1449 VI. After Tumu VII. Emergence of Horse-Tea Trade
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By early 1350s, Mongol Empire in China had dissolved into several competing regions. Mongol rule had led militarization of society. Zhu Yuanzhang, former Red Turban & Buddhist monk defeated all rivals. 9.1368 chased last Mongol ruler from Beijing. Established capital at Nanjing, his base of power in Lower Yangzi region.
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Ming founder, Zhu Yuanzhang, Taizu Hongwu
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Hongwu died June 24, 1398. His successor was 21 yr old Zhu Biao/Prince Yiwen. Yuanzhang’s brother Zhu Di didn’t accept Biao’s elevation to emperor. Summer 1399 civil war; lasted until Nanjing fell to Zhu Di, 7.13.1402.
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Zhu Di, Yongle emperor, usurper
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Zhu Di’s Campaigns Against Mongols Total of six campaigns between 1409 and 1424. Zhu Di understood strategic importance of northern frontier. Experienced military commander who had campaigned on steppe w/ his brother Hongwu.
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Strategies Divide and rule – Western Mongols versus Eastern Mongols. Much of Zhu Di’s success came from is policy of divide and rule. That meant Mongols killing Mongols. Struck alliances with whichever Mongol leader met his strategic plans for security on frontier. Granted titles and titular offices.
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Dissent Enormous cost of mounting six plus expeditions to the frontier. Serious logistics problems to feed armies of between 100,000 to 235,000 men. Minister of Revenue Xia Yuanji ; Minister of Works Wu Zhong , and Minister of War Fang Bin dissented in 1422 against the continued rising costs of frontier expeditions.
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Dissent Fang Bin committed suicide in protest. Xia and Wu imprisoned by Zhi Di until 1424.
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Slide #11
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Analysis Yongle’s aggressive policy along the frontier did not provide a solution to the problem of the Northern Frontier. Problems: logistics; won battles but not the war; Mongol allies, unreliable. Success: Yongle set E. & W. Mongols against each other. Problem: Military campaigns cost more than Mongol raids. Problem: Ming had not yet discovered that trade could be used to control the Mongols.
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Lessons First, personal experience of the grasslands was important to success. Second, a single army setting out from China could not track down the swift Mongol formations. Only way to defeat the Mongols was to adopt their tactic of dividing their armies, or using multiple armies converging on one objective.
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More Lessons Most important lesson: Yongle reoriented the empire institutionally toward the north and northwest. From 1407 to 1421, he constructed
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course HIST 284 taught by Professor C.r.lilley during the Fall '11 term at Maryland.

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Lecture 23, Ming & Mongols, rev2 - Ming &...

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