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Unformatted text preview: Econ326 Intermediate Microeconomics Spring 2011 Instructor: Ginger Z. Jin TAs: Daisy Dai & Sumedha Lecture 1 Course introduction Syllabus Teaching Textbook style and expectations Chapter 1, 2.1-2.3 Goal of the class Teach you to think like a microeconomist Labor market issues Industrial organization Public policies International trade Derive the major concepts and intuitions from introductory microeconomics Class will cover: Consumer demand Describe consumer preference Derive consumer demand Market vs. individual demand Consumer welfare Firm production Production technology Firm choice of input and output Cost and profit How demand meets supply? Example: rental market in College Park Product definition: one bedroom apt off-campus rental in College park tenants, landlords Players: Actions and incentives Tenants: reservation price/willingness to pay Landlords: cost, earn money if possible Monthly rent supply equilibrium demand Units available Why is the demand downward sloping? Monthly rent supply equilibrium demand Units available When will we observe a fixed supply? Market scenario 1: convert some apartments to condos supply Monthly rent demand Units available Both demand and supply get reduced, the effect on market equilibrium price is unclear Market scenario 2: impose $50/month tax on supply landlord Monthly rent demand Units available No change in demand and supply thus no change in price ONLY TRUE with fixed supply What happens if the supply is not fixed? Market scenario 3: non-discriminating monopoly supply Monthly rent demand Units available The monopolist may want to restrict the supply so that he can charge higher price not efficient from the society point of view What if the monopolist can charge different price on different Market scenario 4: rent control supply Monthly rent demand Keep the price down, but create excessive demand How to allocate the limited supply to excessive demand? Units available At the end of this class, You know how to derive a simple demand curve given individual preference You know how to derive the supply decision of each firm You know how to compute market equilibrium under different market structures You can compute who gains and who loses by how much under a simple Syllabus on my personal website click on Econ326 Also available on Prerequisites very strict rules by Economics Department (1) have completed Econ300 with a grade of "C" (2.0) or better, OR (2) have completed or are concurrently taking Math 240 or Math 241. If you satisfy either (1) or (2), you should have already completed ECON200, ECON201, Calculus I and Calculus II. But completion in these four courses are not sufficient for enrollment in Econ326. For those who do not meet the prerequisites but believe that an exception could be made, please talk to Shanna Edinger in Tydings 3127B. Syllabus Textbook: Pindyck and Rubenfeld, Microeconomics, Edition 7 Evaluation Three problem sets, 10% each, 30% total Two midterms, 20% each, 40% total One cumulative final, 30% Five random in-class quizzes, 2 bonus points each Fixed grade definition (NO ADDITIONAL CURVE) F: <40 D: [40,45) D+ [45,50) C-: [50,55) C: [55,60) C+: [60,65) B-: [65,70) B: [70,75) B+: [75,80) A-: [80,90) A: [90,100) A+: [100,110]. Important dates Jan. 31: Handout problem set 1 Feb. 14: Problem set 1 due Feb. 23: Midterm 1 Mar 2: Handout problem set 2 Mar. 30: Problem set 2 due Apr. 4: Midterm 2 Apr. 11: Handout problem set 3 May 2: Problem set 3 due May 18: Final exam (8-10am) There will be 5 in-class quizzes at unannounced dates. Exam policies If you miss exams for reasons in line with university policy, you can take makeup exams or roll over your missed points to final For other reasons to miss the exam, you are allowed to skip at most one midterm (with points rolled over to final) upon one-month written notice to the Professor Problem sets Hard copy distributed in class, soft copy available on elms You can turn in problem sets in class or in your TA's mailbox (in 3105 Tydings) by 4pm of due date Graded problem sets will be returned in TA sessions Teaching Assistants Weijia Daisy Dai Sections 0201 and 0204 F 9-9:50am Tydings 1132 F 10-10:50am Tydings 1132 Sections 0205 Sumedha cannot make the first week, so Daisy will teach all sessions in the first week I made a mistake in the classroom number. We will F 11-11:50am Tydings 1132 use the classroom designated in the UMD Office: Tydings 3115P schedule of classes. Sections 0206 Office hours: M1-2pm F12-1pm Change of office hours for Sumedha Teaching Style Power point lecture notes will be posted on elms same day before class More details and examples may be covered during the class Handouts, problem sets, answer keys will be posted on elms. I will also distribute handouts and problem sets in class Graded work will be returned in TA sessions Expectation on You Attend the class Mute your cell phone at least If you have to use your computer, make sure it is muted and you do not bother others Read related textbook chapters date-specific chapter numbers are available in syllabus Attend TA sessions (will be very useful) Sharpen your calculus Lecture 2 Utility Theory Consumer preferences Constructing Indifference curves Properties of Indifference curves Textbook chapter 3.1-3.2 Intuition of consumer preferences How does a consumer choose the best things that she can afford? What is the best Afford budget constraint How to choose constrained optimization Individual choice of work time Apple rolls out iphone4 Tax cut at the end of 2010 Examples: Utility Definition of Utility Numerical score representing the satisfaction that a consumer gets from a given basket of goods. In what unit? ordinal versus cardinal Marginal Utility the increase in utility you get when you consume one more unit of good X Units of Apples 0 1 2 3 4 5 Total utility (TU) 0 5 9 12 14 15 5-0=5 9-5=4 12-9=3 14-12=2 15-14=1 One common property: Diminishing marginal utility Marginal Utility (MU) Show MU in graph Total Utility U Units of apples (X) Exercise: compute MU, diminishing MU? U=5(X+1) U=5ln(X+1) U=X0.3 U=100-X2 Ordinal vs Cardinal Ordinal Utility the measurement of satisfaction that only requires a RANKING of goods in terms of consumer preference. This is the concept of utility that is embodied in the so-called "utility function" that forms the basis of CONSUMER THEORY... Utility Function Utility function that generates a ranking of Exercise: monotonic transformation of U function? U=5(X+1) Note: U=5X vs 1. monotonic transformation U=5(X+1) vs U=5ln(X+1) does not change the order of preference, 2. it U=5X+5Y vs. U=5lnX+5lnYmay change the property of MU U=X0.5Y0.5 vs U=XY 3. It does NOT change the relative tradeoff between two U=XY vs U=lnX+lnY goods (MUx vs How to graph utility of two goods U(X,Y) U(X,Y) Y Y 0 X 0 X Indifference curves Definition of Indifference Curve: the set of consumption bundles among which the individual is indifferent. That is, the bundles all provide the same level of utility. each indifference curve corresponds to a specific utility level Indifference curves never cross each other Axioms of preferences Completeness A > B, B > A, A ~ B for all bundles A, B A > B and B > C => A > C Otherwise we won't be able to tell which bundle is the best more is preferred to less. Goods are always "good" Counter examples: bad (dislike), neutral goods (indifferent) Transitivity Non-satiation: Examples of indifference curves U(X, point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X 1 2 3 4 1 4 2 3 Y)=X * Y Y 1 2 3 4 4 1 3 2 U 1 4 9 16 4 4 6 6 Y X Typical convex preference Satisfy all four axioms of preference Examples of indifference curves U(X, point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X 1 2 3 4 1 4 2 3 Y)=X + Y Y 1 2 3 4 4 1 3 2 U 2 4 6 8 5 5 5 5 Y X Perfect substitutes Violate "balance" because avg is not better than extremes Examples of indifference curves U(X, point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X 1 2 3 4 1 4 2 3 Y)=min(X, Y) Y 1 2 3 4 4 1 3 2 U 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 2 Y X Perfect complements Violate "non-satiation" sometimes U is not always differentiable, MU is not well defined at the Lecture 3 Marginal rate of substitution Properties of indifference curves Shape of indifference curves Special examples Textbook Chapter 3.1 & 3.2 Assign problem set #1 Marginal rate of substitution (MRS) Definition: Marginal Rate of Substitution (of X for Y) = -dy/dx | same satisfaction (i.e. same U) How many units of Y would you like to give up to get one more unit of X? Can be interpreted as marginal Marginal rate of substitution (MRS) Y A Slope = - MRS at point A X Diminishing MRS (MRS of X for Y diminishes A lot of Y with X) Y relative to X Not much Y rel to X X Consistent with diminishing marginal utility Mathematical derivation of MRS U=U(X,Y) Total differentiation: dU = MUx * dX + MUy * dY =0 -dY/dX = MUx / MUy = MRS (of X for Y) MRS and ordinal utility Calculate MRS: U=XY U=lnX + lnY U=X+Y U=X+Y2 U=(X+1)(Y+2) U=X2 Y2 Which and which are monotonic transformations of each other? Properties of indifference curves Indifferent preferences for typicalcurves are downward sloping Violate non-satiation if upward sloping Indifference curves never cross curves are convex Violate transitivity if they cross Violate balance if they are concave or linear Indifference How would the indifference curves (on apples and bananas) look like if: Like apples and bananas Like apples up to a satiation level Like apples, but dislike bananas Like apples, but indifferent to bananas Must eat one apple with one banana Dislike apples, dislike bananas Like both apples and bananas up to a satiation level Like apples and bananas bananas U apples Like apples up to a satiation levelbananas U What happens if one likes both apple and banana up to a satiation level? apples Like apples but dislike bananas bananas U What if one dislikes both apples and bananas? apples Like apples but indifferent to bananas bananas U apples Must eat one apple with one banana bananas U (perfect complements) Locus line What determines the locus line? What if one must each two apples with one banana? apples Always willing to exchange one applebananas one banana (perfect for U substitutes) What determines the slope of the indifference curve? What if one is always willing to exchange two apples for one banana? apples Cobb-Douglas Utility Typical functional form: U=Xc Yd Transformations: U=c*lnX + d*lnY or U= Xa Y1-a where a=c/(c+d) Calculate MRS at point (X,Y) Lecture 4: Budget constraints definition Shocks to consumer budget Kinked consumer budget Textbook Chapter 3.1 & 3.2 Budget constraints Definition: The budget constraint presents the combinations of goods that the consumer can afford given her income and the price of goods. Equation: Px * X + Py * Y = I Rearrange: Y = I/ Py + (- Px / Py ) * X intercep t slope Graph budget constraint Y I/Py Slope = - Px / Py I/Px X Px/Py = the rate at which Y is traded for X in the marketplace Unlike MRS, the price ratio does not depend on consumer Exercise My 11-year-old son has 20 dollar allowance each month. He likes bakugan balls and pokemon cards Bakugan ball is $5 each Pokemon card is $2 each Draw his budget line What happens with income tax cut? Tax cut more income Y I/Py Does the intercept on Y change? Does the intercept on X change? Does the slope of the budget line change? Slope = - Px / Py I/Px X What happens if gasoline price goes up? (assume gasoline is X) Px Y I/Py increases Does the intercept on Y change? Does the intercept on X change? Does the slope of the budget line change? Slope = - Px / Py I/Px X Examples of kinked budget constraints (if price depends on how many units to buy) Assume income = $2000 Two goods: X=food, Y=health care Prices: Px= $2, Py = $1 if Y<=500 (deductible $500) Py = $0.2 if Y> $500 (coinsurance 20%) Y (health care) 8000 Slope = -Px /Py = -2/0.2=-10 Slope = -Px /Py = -2 500 750 1000 X (food) Example 2: 1979 food stamp program Income I=2000 Two goods: food (X), other (Y) Px =1, Py = 1 A household is granted $200 food stamp But the food stamp can only be used for food other 2000 2000 2200 food What happens if there is a black market to trade food stamps? Example 3: role of financial market Y (tomorrow) #1: no financial market 2*I I I 2*I X (today) Y (tomorrow) #2: a financial market allows saving and borrowing at interest rate r The opportunity cost of not saving today makes one feel as if today's price is increased to (1+r). X (today) Y (tomorrow) Now we have a kink due to the asymmetric terms of borrowing and saving X (today) Recap so far Indifference curves describe consumer preference Budget constraints describe what consumers can afford Put the two together to determine the best bundle one can afford Graphical presentation Y MRS > Px/Py I/Py A C B Slope = - Px / Py MRS < Px/Py I/Px X Px/Py = the rate at which Y is traded for X in the marketplace MRS = the rate at which the consumer is willing to trade Y for X At the best choice: Must spend every penny (assume no savings, goods are divisible) Equal Marginal Principle MRS = the rate at which the consumer is willing to trade Y for one extra unit of X Px / Py = the rate at which Y is traded for X in the market place MRS = Px / Py MUx /Px = MUy /Py Mathematical derivation Max U(X, Y) by choosing X and Y Subject to I = Px * X + Py * Y Define Lagrangian function L = U(X,Y) + (I Px * X Py * Y) is an additional variable, now need to choose X, Y, Mathematical derivation We get the equal marginal principle back! is the shadow price of the budget constraint Tell us how much the objective function will increase if the budget constraint is relaxed by one dollar ((dL/dI = dU/dI when I is binding) Therefore, is also called the marginal utility of income when utility is maximized Exercise: find the best choice when U (Food, Clothes) = ln (F) + ln (C) Price of food = $2 Price of clothes =$1 Income=100 Answer: F=25, C=50 Lecture 5 Consumer's optimal choice Inner solution, corner solution Cobb-Douglas utility Price and consumer choice Income and consumer choice Normal, inferior and giffen goods Textbook Chapter 4 appendix, 4.1-4.4 Typically: Inner solution Y At the optimal choice: MRS = Px/Py I=Px * X + Py * Y I/Py I/Px X What if the equal marginal principle cannot be satisfied? corner solution Y I/Py U Spend every penny: I=Px * X + Py * Y Check which corner gives higher utility I/Px X Example 1 of corner solution: perfect substitutes Y 100 U U=X+2Y Px=10 Py=10 Income=1000 100 X Example 2 of corner solution: perfect complements U Y 100 U=min(X,2Y) Px=10 Py=10 Income=1000 100 X Demand Optimal choice X=f(Px, Py, Income) Properties: Homogenous degree of zero Typically depends on income, own price, price of other goods Special example: Cobb-Douglas Utility Two equations Solve for two unknown s (X and Y) Demand only depends on own price, not price of other goods Homothetic preferences: MRS only depends on the ratio of X and Y Fixed share of income for each good Graph consumer choice in response to: Price changes Income changes Two goods: food, clothing Price of food drops Two goods: food, clothing Income increases Note that incomeconsumption curve is not necessarily linear Normal goods Consumers want to buy more quantity of normal goods as their incomes increase. Inferior goods Consumers want to buy fewer quantity of inferior goods as their incomes increase. Examples? Hamburger is a normal good from A to B, but an inferior good from B to C Engel curve Giffen goods Normal and inferior goods are defined by how consumer choice changes in response to income change Giffen goods depend on price change Typical goods have downward sloping demand curve Giffen goods have upward sloping demand curve: as price increases, consumers buy more; as price decreases, consumers buy less. Lecture 6 Decompose income and substitution effects in response to price change Slusky Equation Textbook chapter: 4.3-4.4 Handout #1: an example Food price falls Initial choice A new choice B Imaginary D: same utility as A, but Slusky Equation Total effects Substitution Income effects effects What if X is an inferior good? income effect works against the substitution effect What if X is a Giffen good? income effect works against and more than cancels off the substitution effect Example 1: Example 2: Introduction of health insurance X=food, Y=health care, Px=$2, Py=$1 if no insurance, Income=2000 Benchmark: no insurance Scenario #1: insurers pay 80% of the cost of any medical service Scenario #2: insurers pay 80% after $500 deductible 1000 0 Y (health care) A: choice with no insurance C: choice with insurance A to B: substitution effect B to C: income effect Slope = -Px /Py = -2/0.2=-10 C B A Slope = -Px /Py = -2 1000 X (food) Scenario #1: insurers pay 80% of the cost of any medical service Y (health care) 8000 Slope = -Px /Py = -2/0.2=-10 Scenario #2: insurers pay 80% after $500 deductible Slope = -Px /Py = -2 500 750 1000 X (food) How would the insurance coverage affect those who are healthier and do not need more than $500 health care before the insurance coverage? Lectures 7-8 Application to labor supply Individual and market demand Demand elasticity and cross elasticity Textbook chapter: 4.3-4.4 Individual demand A consumer's optimal choice of a good depends on The price of this good The price of other goods Income Example Two goods Income C (24w+y)/P c C* L* 24 24+y/w L w 1 0.5 4.8 8 24 L Pc 1 0.5 19.2 42.7 C More generally: Market demand Q(P)= sum of individual demand Qi(P) Textbook example of market demand How to summarize market demand? Meaning of demand elasticity Classify demand by demand elasticity Market demand Q(P) P If you are the producer, why do you want to know demand elasticity? 50 Q Example: 100 Q=100-2P What is demand elasticity at p=10,20,30? Special cases P Completely inelastic demand Infinitely elastic demand Q Other elasticities Example More on cross elasticity X and Y are substitutes If an increase in Px leads to an increase in the quantity demanded of Y. and Y are complements If an increase in Px leads to a decrease in the quantity demanded of Y. and Y are Independent If Px does not affect the quantity demanded of Y Cobb-Douglas utility independent goods X X Consumer surplus Individual consumer surplus = difference between what a consumer is willing to pay for a good and the amount actually paid Total consumer surplus = sum of individual consumer surplus For six consumers, CS = $6+$5+$4+$3+$2+$1=$21 Total Consumer Surplus = *(20-14)*6500=19,500 Textbook example of market demand Calculate the demand elasticity of total demand and total consumer surplus at p=18. To summarize Consumer preference (utility function) Budget Constraint optimal choice X=X(Px, Py, I) Income-consumption curve, priceconsumption curve, engel curve, demand curve Income and substitution effects Sum of Individual demand=market demand Demand elasticity, income elasticity, Midterm Feb 23, class time, 50 minutes, closebook Will provide basic-function calculator 15 multiple choices (60%), 2 long questions (40%) Daisy has temporary time conflict in her Monday office hour this week. Her Monday office hour will be cancelled, but she will offer extra office hours at Tues 12:30-2:30pm. Lecture 11 Risk and Consumer behavior Describe risk Preferences towards risk Demand for risky assets Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit, by Frank Knight (1921) Risk: random events that can be quantified in probability random events that cannot be quantified in probability we focus on "risk" only Uncertainty: Today Describe risk Outcome: a random event is associated with multiple outcomes, for instance: head/tail when we flip a coin gain/loss when we invest in a risky asset Healthy or sick in the future Probability: likelihood that a given outcome will occur Payoff: value associated with a possible outcome Describe risk Expected value: probability-weighted average of the payoffs associated with all possible outcomes E(X)=Prob1*X1+ Prob2*X2 +...+ Probn*Xn Variance: Extent to which possible outcomes of a risky event differ Var(X)= Prob1*(X1-E(X))2 + Prob2*(X2 -E(X))2 +...+ Probn*(Xn -E(X))2 Standard deviation: square root of variance, same unit as X Example Job1: 50% probability with income $2000 50% probability with income $1000 99% probability with income $1510 1% probability with income $1500 Job2 Calculate expected values, variance, standard deviation Job1 is riskier Preferences toward risk For outcome Xi, utility = U(Xi) Expected utility EU=Prob1*U(X1)+ Prob2*U(X2) +....+Probn*U(Xn) Risk averse: prefers a certain given outcome to a risky event with the same expected value: EU(X)<U(E(X)) Risk neutral: indifferent between a certain given outcome and a risky event with the same expected value: EU(X)=U(E(X)) Risk loving: prefer a risky event to a certain outcome with the same expected value: EU(X)>U(E(X)) Example Eric now has a job with annual income $15000 He is considering a new job: 50% prob with income $30,000 50% prob with income $10,000 Risk averse (EU(X)?, U(E(X))?) Risk neutral (EU(X)?, U(E(X))?) Risk loving (EU(X)?, U(E(X))?) Risk premium: maximum amount of money that a risk averse person will pay to avoid taking the risk Indifference curves for a risk averse person Like higher expected value, But dislike risk (measured in standard deviation) U How would the indifference curves look like if the person is risk neutral? What if he is risk loving? How to reduce risk? Diversification Practice of reducing risk by allocating resources to a variety of activities whose outcomes are not closely related Most effective if the activities are negatively correlated (examples?) Pay insurance premium to avoid risky outcomes Actuarially fair: the insurance premium is equal to the expected payout Insurance Choosing between risk and return Risk free asset: Rf Asset with market risk: Rm, m ( Rm Rf ) Portfolio p: Rp= Rf +-------------- * p m Choice of a risk averse person Exercise: Chapter 5, Question 7 Suppose two investments have the same three payoffs, but the probability of each payoff differs: payoff $300 $250 $200 Prob (investment A) 0.10 0.80 0.10 Prob (investment B) 0.30 0.40 0.30 Find the expected return and standard deviation of each investment. Jill has the utility function U=5*X where X denotes the payoff. Which investment will she choose? Ken's utility function is U=5*X0.5, which investment will he choose? For Ken, what's the risk premium of investment A? What's the risk premium of investment B? Lectures 12, 13 Technology of production Production function Average product, marginal product Law of diminishing marginal return Malthus and the food crisis Production with two inputs Isoquant curve Marginal rate of technical substitution Returns to scale Technology of Production Production function: shows the highest output that a firm can produce for each specified combination of inputs Single input (labor): q=F(L) Two inputs (capital, labor): q=F(K,L) Short-run: time in which quantities of one or more inputs cannot be changed Long-run: time needed to make all Single-input production q=F(L) Average product: q /L Marginal product: dq /dL q 0 10 30 60 80 95 Avg product q/L L 0 1 2 3 4 5 Marginal product dq/dL Graphically: Marginal Product (MP) and Average Product (AP) Law of diminishing marginal returns As the use of an input increases with other inputs fixed, the resulting additions to output (i.e. marginal product) will eventually decrease. This is different from technological improvement Example: Malthus and the food crisis How to describe production with more than one inputs? Isoquant curve: shows all possible combinations of inputs that yield the same output Similar to "indifference curve" for consumer utility Marginal rate of technical substitution (MRTS) Amount by which the quantity of one input can be reduced when one extra unit of another input is used so that output remains constant. MRTS of L for K = - dK/dL | same q = MPL / MPk MRTS = - slope of isoquant curve Diminishing MRTS Similar to MRS in consumer utility Example Plot isoquant curve for K=2, L=1, calculate marginal product of labor, marginal product of capital and MRTS at this point q=3KL q=3K+L q=min(3K, L) Diminishing MRTS Special case #1: K and L are perfect substitutes if production function is linear, MRTS is always a constant Special case #2: K and L are perfect complements if production function is min(f(K), g(L), MRTS is not well defined at the kink (i.e when f(K)=g(L)) Cardinal vs Ordinal Returns to scale Rate at which output increases as ALL inputs are increased proportionally Note it is different from marginal product It is a property of a given production function, also different from technological improvement Simple rule of thumb: will the output double when all the inputs double? q more than double Increasing returns to scale q exactly double Constant returns to scale q less than double Decreasing returns to Constant return to scale Increasing return to scale Can you think of any real-world examples that have constant, increasing or decreasing returns to scale? Example: are these production functions decreasing, increasing or constant returns to scale? q=3KL q= K0.5L0.3 q=0.5lnK + 0.8lnL q=3K+L q=min(3K, L) q= 3KL + 3KL2 Lecture 14, 15 and 16 Cost functions Firm decision Given production technology Given input prices of input firm decides on optimal choice of inputs cost function Short run Long run Cost w = wage rate r = capital rental cost Both could be opportunity cost Cost function C (q) = w*L(q) + r*K(q) Firm's decision does not include "sunk cost" after the cost is sunk Example? Fixed vs. Variable Cost Variable cost fixed cost How to determine cost with only one variable input? More generally Total production function Total cost function Marginal cost (MC) and avg cost (AC) Total cost function Marginal cost MC = dC/dq Average Variale cost = VC/q Average total cost = TC/q = (VC + FC)/q When MC=AC, it is the minimum of AC How to determine cost with two variable inputs? Graphically: Isoquant curve at q Isocost curves Special case 1: when K and L are perfect substitutes, we may get corner solutions Special case 2: when K and L are perfect complements, we always use the "perfect" proportion of K and L Optimal inputs are at the kink of the isoquant curve Follow the previous example Long run AC and MC Inflexibility of short run Short run and long run costs Exercise Production function q=10KL Wage w=10, rental cost of capital r=20 Total, average and marginal cost of producing q units in the short run when K is fixed at 5? Total, average and marginal cost of producing q units in the long run? What happens if wage rate increases to 20? Lectures 16 & 17 Profit Maximization of competitive firms So far we know how to choose inputs and derive cost function for a specific level of production under a specific technology, but how does a firm determine how much to produce? This class: Competitive market Profit maximization of competitive firms Total revenue, marginal revenue Choice of output given market prices Perfectly competitive market Homogenous goods must charge same price Free entry and exit of producers Price-taking: numerous firms in the market so no firm's individual supply decision affects price. All firms face perfectly elastic demand Any example that violates the above assumption(s)? Individual firms vs. the industry Demand curve faced by a competitive firm (perfectly elastic) Demand curve faced by the industry Profit-maximizing firms Graphic illustration of profit maximization Algebraically: About fixed cost Graphic example Exercise Output price p=10 Total cost = 100 + q + 0.5 * q2 Write down FC, VC, AC and MC. How much should the firm choose to produce in the short run (after it incurs FC)? Should the firm shut down in the long run? At what price will the firm enter the market? Short run supply curve of a competitive firm How will the supply curve change in the long run? Industry supply curve in the short run Producer surplus Producer surplus for a firm Producer surplus for the industry in the short run Long run profit maximization for an individual firm More flexible in input choices production can be more cost-efficient in the long run Can shut down and exit the market if the expected profit is lower than the fixed cost Long run competitive equilibrium for the industry three conditions profit. All firms are maximizing 1. 2. No firm has an incentive to entry or exit because all firms earn zero economic profit Zero economic profit represents a competitive return for the firm's investment of financial capital The price of the product is such that the quantity supplied by the industry is equal to the quantity demanded by consumers. 3. Continue the previous example for the whole industry start with p=40 The industry's long run supply curve Constant cost industry All firms face same cost Every firm is small as compared to the market Long run supply curve is horizontal The industry's long run supply curve cost industry increasing The prices of some or all inputs increase as the industry expands Long run supply curve is upward sloping Is it possible for the industry's long run supply curve to be downward sloping? Yes, for decreasing cost industry The prices of some or all inputs may fall as the industry expands and takes advantage of the industry size to obtain cheaper inputs Price elasticity of supply Exercise Lecture 18 Competitive market equilibrium Demand equal to supply Consumer surplus Producer surplus Dead weight loss Consequence of price regulations Competitive market equilibrium Every consumer is a price-taker and a utility-maximizer Every firm is a price-taker and a profitmaximizer Free entry and exit Demand equal to supply Consumer surplus and producer surplus Price control #1: impose a maximum price that is below the market clearing price Price control #2: impose a minimum price that is above the market clearing price Regulating price away from freemarket price (in either direction) will introduce some deadweight loss. Exercise: Demand: P=100-Q Supply: P=1+2Q Calculate market price, quantity sold, consumer surplus, producer surplus and total welfare Suppose the government imposes a price ceiling of $50. How would market price, quantity sold, consumer surplus, producer surplus and total welfare change? How much is the More about price regulation Price regulation will distort the market and generate dead weight loss in total welfare Price regulation will also generate a redistribution between consumers and producers What if you care more about consumer surplus than about producer surplus? Lower price may lead consumers to suffer a net loss if the demand is sufficiently inelastic With price ceiling, new CS=old CS-B+A Example: the market of kidney and the National Organ Transplantation Act Market clearing price is 20,000. The law makes the price zero. At market price, total welfare=(D+B+...)+(A+C) At regulated price, total welfare=(D+.A+..)+0 Other regulations: supply restriction Limited taxi licenses Trade barriers At world price, buy Qs from domestic, and import Qd-Qs If import is not allowed, price rises to P0 How much is the deadweight loss? How much is the loss of consumer surplus? What if there is an import At world price, buy quota? Qs from domestic, and import Qd-Qs If import is only allowed up to the quota, price rises to P* How much is the deadweight loss? How much is the loss of consumer surplus? What about domestic and foreign producers? What about we impose a lump sum tax on gasoline? Changes in CS? Changes in PS? Gov revenue? Impact of tax depend on demand and supply elasticity Lecture 19 Exchange economy Edgeworth box Determination of trade price and trade amount Contract curve Textbook: Chapter 16 Edgeworth box 2 individuals No production, exchange only Every one is price taker Contract curve Pareto optimal (pareto efficient) There is no way to make one better off and the others not worse off Every point on the contract curve is pareto optimal. Competitive equilibrium Example: Handout Two individuals: A and B Two goods: X and Y Endowment: each one has 5 unites of X and 5 units of Y Utility: UA=XA*YA, UB=XB2*YB. Question: is there a trade? How much to trade? Market price? Lecture 20 First welfare theorem Reasons for market failure Monopoly: Marginal revenue = MC Monoposony: Marginal expenditure = MC First theorem of welfare economics: Competitive equilibrium is the best! More formally, textbook Page 597: If everyone trades in the competitive marketplace, all mutually beneficial trades will be completed and the resulting equilibrium allocation of resources will be economically efficient. Three reasons for market failure Market power: some party is not price taker Monopoly: one seller, non price taker Monoposony: one buyer, non price taker Asymmetric Externality information Monopoly Total revenue Total cost Marginal revenue < price restrict supply Monopoly choice competitive choice MC The Principle of Monopoly pricing Mark up Inverse of demand elasticity This implies: The more elastic the demand is, the lower the monopoly mark up. Demand elasticity limits the monopolist's market power Monopolist will always choose to operate at an elastic part of the demand curve. Example Demand: P=100-Q Total cost: TC = 20+4Q Competitive P and Q? Monopoly P and Q? Demand elasticity at this point? Confirm the Lerner rule. Loss of CS due to monopoly? Change of PS due to monopoly? Total welfare changes? Exercise: Drug innovation needs FC=5 billion Demand per month P=100-0.0001Q Marginal cost =$2 If we grant X years of monopoly power for the inventor, what should X be? Midterm 2 summary Mean 65.19 STDEV 15.68 Min 27 Max 100 No curve Follow the letter definition as announced before F: <40 D: [40,45) D+ [45,50) C-: [50,55) C: [55,60) C+: [60,65) B-: [65,70) B: [70,75) B+: [75,80) A-: [80,90) A: [90,100) A+: [100,110]. Example of grade calculation Suppose you have earned: HW1 80%, HW2 70%, HW3 85% Midterm1 60%, Midterm2 65% Final 70% Attend 3 out of 5 in-class quizzes Your total grade will be 80%*10+70%*10+85%*10+60%*20+65%* 20+70%*30+3*2=75.5 Overall letter grade=B+ Lecture 21 Price discrimination Price discrimination the practice of selling a particular good at different prices to groups with different valuations. does price discrimination occur? When 1. 2. 3. The seller has some market power (i.e. facing downward demand) Sellers can distinguish different types of consumers No arbitrage Types of Price discrimination 1st degree charge each consumer their maximum willingness to pay don't know who is willing to pay more, offer a menu of deals to sort out consumers different prices according to consumers' observable attributes (age, gender, ...) 2nd degree 3rd degree: offer Can you think of examples for each? Third degree of price discrimination Third degree of price discrimination Example: Chapter 11, Exercise 8 Recap on competitive equilibrium and monopoly Competitive equilibrium: Both sellers and buyers are price-takers Demand = supply P=MC Buyers are price takers, but the seller is not MR=MC>P Seller has market power, will push price up to consumer willingness to pay (i.e. the demand curve) Monopoly Lecture 22 Monoposony Monopoly one seller vs. competitive buyers The seller realizes his power to set market price This power is only useful when demand is downward sloping (rather than horizontal) Monopsony: one buyer vs. competitive sellers The buyer realizes his power to set market price This power is only useful when supply is upward sloping (rather than horizontal) Mathematically Willingness to pay for the marginal unit of q = inverse demand p(q) Graphically -> marginal expenditure >MC -> supply curve MC -> demand curve Compare monopsony with monopoly Monopoly pushes price to demand curve Monopoly is more powerful if demand is inelastic Monopsony pushes price to supply curve Monopsony is more powerful if supply is inelastic Monopsony leads to dead weight loss Exercise: Walmart is a monopsony of apparel in China. There are many sellers of apparel in China. Based on US demand for apparel, Walmart is willing to pay P=500-0.1Q for Q units of apparel. The supply of apparel is P=80+0.2Q Calculate P and Q in competitive equilibrium Calculate P and Q in monopsony equilibrium Welfare consequence of monopsony Lectures 23 and 24 Imperfect competition Recall conditions for perfect competition Homogenous goods Every one is price taker Free entry and exit We talked about two extremes: perfect competition and monopoly (monopsony) Between the two extremes: Monopolistic competition Monopolistic competition large number of small firms freedom of entry and exit perfect info Differentiated products What does this imply? 1. Every firm faces downward sloping demand have some power is setting price above MC 2. Every firm earns zero economic profit Monopolistic competition in short-run and long-run Short run Long run Inefficiency in monopolistic competition Downward sloping demand market power to set price above MC dead weight loss and Zero profit in the long run operate at AC>MC extra capacity, economy of scale not fully exploited P>MC Oligopoly a market structure in which a small number of firms serve market demand. The industry is characterized by limited entry. Homogenous goods Simplest case duopoly (i.e. only two sellers) Each aware of the existence of the other firm Compete instead of collude each firm has market power less than monopolist Nash Equilibrium Each firm is doing the best it can given what its competitors are doing. No one has incentive to deviate at the equilibrium Cournot model of Duopoly Two profit maximizing firms produce the same goods (e.g. gasoline) Both firms try to set its own output separately and simultaneously each firm treats the output level of its competitor as fixed when deciding its own output Solve Cournot equilibrium Example: textbook p453 Market demand: P=30-Q MC=0 for both firms How much to produce in Cournot equilibrium? What is the market price? What if the two firms collude so they together act like a monopolist? Compare these two cases with competitive equilibrium Cournot: firm 1's point of view First order condition with respect to Q1 while taking Q2 as given: Firm 1's reaction curve: Cournot: firm 2's point of view First order condition with respect to Q2 while taking Q1 as given: Firm 1's reaction curve: Put the two together: Compare to monopoly if the two firms collude MR=P+P'(Q)*Q=30-Q-Q=30-2Q MR=MC 30-2Q=0 Q=15 The two firms together produce 15, so each produce 7.5. P=30-Q=15. Compare to perfect competition P=MC 30-Q=0 Q=30, P=0. Graphically Variation 1: What if the two firms do not choose output simultaneously? Stackelberg model: One firm sets its output before other firms do. first move advantage Difference between Cournot and Stackelberg models The leading firm will consider how the other firms adjust output according to his choice of output Continue the previous example Variation 2: What if the two firms choose price instead of output simultaneously? Demand: P=30-Q, MC=0 for both firms As long as the other firm charges above MC, this firm has incentive to undercut At the end, each charges MC and earns zero profit! This is called Bertrand competition! What if the two firms have different cost, say MC1=10, MC2=0? Simple Game Theory Nash Equilibrium: no one has incentive to deviate given the other parties' strategy. Dominant strategy: it is the player's best strategy no matter what strategy the other players adopt Prisoner's dilemma Confess Not confess Confess Not confess -10, -10 -15, -5 -5, -15 -6, -6 Examples of prison's dilemma Two firms collude each has incentive to secretly cut price or expand output collusion is fundamentally unstable Any other example? Pure strategy vs. Mixed strategy Inspection game Detect Not Detect -5,0 0, 0 Mixed: randomize between strategies Example: Comply Not comply -5,-5 -10, 5 No pure strategy equilibrium, the only equilibrium is 50% probability detect, 50% probability comply Lecture 25 Asymmetric Information Adverse Selection Problem solution Moral Hazard Problem Solution Adverse selection and Moral Hazard Recall: Reasons for market failure Imperfect competition Monopoly, monopsony, oligopoly, monopolistic competition Asymmetric information Situation in which a buyer and a seller possess different information about a transaction. Externality The market for lemons Suppose used car quality is uniformly distributed between 0 (completely dysfunctional) and 1 (same as brand new) Suppose a typical buyer is willing to pay X for quality X. Problem: the buyer cannot observe car quality before purchase (no test drive....) 0 0.25 0.5 1 Adverse selection Cause: Products of different qualities are sold at a single price because sellers observe product quality but buyers do not Consequence: too much of the low quality product (so called "lemons") and too little of the high quality product (so called "peaches") are sold. Other examples? Solutions to adverse selection Return and warranty Blanket return policy Hyundai offers 10-year warranty workers may signal their ability by education Reputable restaurants (e.g. McDonald) have more to lose if they cheat Signaling Reputation Third party certification Moral hazard One party engage in hidden actions This action affects the probability or magnitude of a payment associated with an event Example: principal-agent problem Close monitoring Incentive contract Solutions to principal-agent problem Textbook example: revenue from making watches Bad Luck (50%) $10,000 $20,000 Good Luck (50%) $20,000 $40,000 Low effort (a=0) High effort (a=1) Cost of low effort=0, cost of high effort=10,000 What kind of contract can solicit high effort? Incentive contract Any fixed wage does not yield high effort. Let wage conditional on revenue. Consider: w=max(R-18000,0) At low effort, expected wage is 0*0.5+(2000018000)*0.5=1000 At high effort, expected wage is (2000018000)*0.5+(40000-18000)*0.5=12000 The net gain to the worker with high effort = 12000-10000=2000>1000, so the worker will commit to high effort When the worker engages in high effort, the principal's net gain = 20000*0.5+40000*0.512000=18000. Adverse selection and moral hazard They are different Adverse selection: info asymmetry before contract Moral hazard: info asymmetry after contract They can co-exist Unsecured consumer credit Insurance Employment Lecture 26: Externality Definition Negative externality Positive externality Solutions Externality Definition: Action by either a producer or a consumer which affects other producers or consumers but is not accounted for in the market price Negative externality Examples? Positive externality Examples? Inefficiency of negative externality cost facing the producer MC: marginal MSC: marginal social cost of production facing the whole society MSC-MC=marginal external cost Externality over production Solution Restrict production in light of negative externality Emission standard How can EPA know the optimal standard? Enforcement cost is high Charge emission fee Tradeable emissions permits Example: Chapter 18 Exercise #6 Demand for paper: Qd=160,000- 2000P Supply for paper: Qs=40,000+2000P Marginal external cost of effluent dumpting: MEC=0.0006Qs Calculate P and Q assumption no regulation on the dumping of effluent. Determine the socially efficient P and Q. Inefficiency of positive externality repair and landscaping Consider home MB=Marginal benefits for the home owner Marginal social benefits=MB+marginal external benefit for neighbors Positive externality under provision of public goods Public goods Definition: the marginal cost of provision to an additional consumer is zero and people cannot be excluded from consuming it Two properties: Nonrival: zero cost to additional consumers Nonexclusive: cannot exclude people from using the public goods Examples: national defense, light house, air quality, information Private provision of public goods suffers from the free-riding problem A comprehensive example Stephen J. Dubner and Steven D. Levitt's blog on 4/20/2008 titled "Not so-free ride" Final Exam May 18, 8-10am, Jimenez Hall 0220 (the regular classroom) Format Close-book with standardized basicfunction calculator 20 multiple choices (3 points each) 4 long questions (10 points each) Total 100 points, accounting for 30% of overall grade Coverage of final exam Comprehensive Roughly 50% on materials after the second midterm I will NOT test you on the materials that are in the textbook but not covered in my lectures But everything covered in my lectures will be subject to testing How to prepare for the final? Read the textbook on the materials that I have covered in class Review class notes, handouts, problem sets and midterms Compare math with graphs Try multiple choice questions at (click on companion website) Try textbook exercises at the end of each chapter (some have answers at the end of the book) Office hours Instructor (Ginger) May 11 office hours are cancelled due to committee work at DC Extra office hours on: Friday May 13 3:30-5pm Monday May 16 3:30-5pm. TAs Daisy: May 13 (Fri): 12:00-1:00pm May 14 (Sat): 1:30pm-3:30pm No office hour on May 16 (Mon) Sumedha: Th 12:30-1:30pm, F 9-10am Course overview Three main blocks Consumer's problem Producer's problem Market equilibrium uncertainty, game theory, asymmetric information, externality Extras The review below focuses on the most basic points that you should master, it is not meant to be exhaustive of all materials subject to Consumer's problem Utility function Budget constraint Write out and solve consumer's utility maximization problem How does consumer choice change in response to changes in price or income? Derive individual demand and market demand Calculate demand elasticity Special cases: perfect substitutes and perfect complements Producer's problem Production function and related concepts Solve firm's cost minimization problem How does firm's choice change in light of production change or input price change? Cost function and related concepts Derive individual and market supply in perfect equilibrium Market equilibrium Perfect competition (demand = supply, price=MR=MC) 2-person exchange economy (Edgeworth box) Monopoly (MR=MC<price) uniform pricing, price discrimination Monoposony (ME=WTP>Price) Duopoly (Cournot, Bertrand, Stackelberg) Monopolistic competition Extras Uncertainty Expected value, expected utility and risk preferences Simple game theory Concept of Nash Equilibrium, dominant strategy, mixed strategy Simple examples in class Asymmetric Information Adverse selection Moral hazard Externality Negative externality Course evaluation please OPEN NOW through Wednesday, May 11th Thank you! ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2012 for the course ECON 326 taught by Professor Hulten during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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