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Soc 102 Study Guide 3 - Zach Holland145.5 Soc 102 Test 3...

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Zach Holland145.5 4/20/11 Soc 102 Test 3 UNIT 7 Why are we segregated? Human beings are attuned to group membership Rob Kurzban experiment o The subjects saw the blacks in the video as similar to each other and also saw the whites as similar to each other. o when the subjects had information (t-shirts and talk about competition) that suggested that the people in the video were in two competing groups, they paid attention to group membership—not race o Kurzban concluded that, in America, we pay attention to race because we see it as an indicator of group coalitions. If we have evidence of other group coalitions, then we pay attention to them instead of race How we categorize someone is neither obvious nor set in stone o It varies in time and place o In some countries people are categorized by their skin color, in America we place people into racial categories o We call people “black” who are very light and people “white” who have dark skin Racial categories in the United States have changed over time Some people’s category changed over time on the census because racial categorize we use have changed o In 1790, the U.S. census included three categories—black, white, and other o In 1890, the categories had expanded to include black, Chinese, Indian (Native American), mulatto, and white o In 1930, but not after that, the category “Mexican” was included as a race o In 2010, the categories were White; Black, African American, or Negro; American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Other Asian, Native Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, Other Pacific Islander, and Some other race In the United States we categorize people by their ancestry Once perceptions of group coalitions exist, they have consequences o One consequence is segregation Even slight individual preferences to be around at least some members of our own category combine to produce macro-level patterns that nobody actually prefers Slight preferences can produce segregation Schelling Exercise o Rosa Parks fought in 1955 when she refused an Alabama bus driver's demand that she move to the rear with other Black riders
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o Schelling proposed “racial discrimination arises not only from behavior that is "heartless, selfish and illegal" but "from the magnification of small incentives into massive results." “American apartheid” -Racial segregation is so extensive and persistent Ever since African Americans moved to cities early in the twentieth century, whites developed a variety of strategies to enforce their preferences: laws mandating segregation, restrictive covenants, redlining, and discriminatory marketing practices o
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