riggio_ppt_ch14

riggio_ppt_ch14 - CHAPTER 14 Organizational Structure,...

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CHAPTER 14 Organizational Structure, Culture, and Development Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology by Ronald E. Riggio
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Organizational Structure Organizational structure refers to the arrangement of positions in an organization and the authority and responsibility relationships among them. Organizational structure is determined by the interrelationships among the responsibilities of various employee positions and roles. Organizational structure can be characterized by several features, including traditionality , chain of command and span of control , functional versus divisional structure , and centralization.
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Dimensions of Organizational Structure Traditional organizations have formally defined roles for members and are rule- driven, stable, and resistant to change. Jobs and lines of authority are clearly defined, so that much work behavior is regulated and kept within organizational standards. Nontraditional organizations are characterized by less formalized work roles and procedures. They are flexible and adaptable, without a rigid status hierarchy; they are often called “organic”.
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Dimensions of Organizational Structure Traditional organizations : Tend to be large, with greater coordination needed with larger numbers of workers. Examples include government agencies, universities, and large factories. Are often called “mechanistic” or “bureaucratic”.
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Dimensions of Organizational Structure Nontraditional organizations : Tend to be smaller. May occur as a smaller organization within a larger, more traditionally structured organization. Are often organized around a particular project or product line, and are responsible for all aspects of the project.
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Dimensions of Organizational Structure Nontraditional organizations have four important characteristics. High flexibility and adaptability Collaboration among workers Less emphasis on organizational status Group decision making
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Dimensions of Organizational Structure Chain of command refers to the number of authority levels in an organization. Follows the status hierarchy Span of control is the number of workers who must report to a single supervisor. A wide span of control involves many subordinates reporting to each supervisor; a narrow span has few subordinates per supervisor.
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Dimensions of Organizational Structure Based on chain of command and span of control , the shape of traditional organizational structures can be: “Tall,” with a long chain of command and narrow span of control. “Flat,” with short chain of command and wide span of control. Very nontraditional organizations may have a very small chain of command, if any.
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Dimensions of Organizational Structure Organization shape can affect work life in the organization. In “tall” structures, workers may feel cut off
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riggio_ppt_ch14 - CHAPTER 14 Organizational Structure,...

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